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John André (1750–1780) by John Keyse Sherwin, 1781 (after self-portrait, 1780) © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Richard Garnett

revised by Troy O. Bickham

André, John (1750–1780), army officer and spy, was born in London on 2 May 1750, the eldest son of Anthony André (1717–1769), a Genevese merchant settled in the city, and Marie Louise Girardot (1721?–1813). He had at least one brother and sister. He was educated at home and possibly at ...

Article

Armorer, Sir Nicholas (c. 1620–1686), royalist army officer, conspirator, and courtier, was born at Belford, Northumberland, a younger son of Thomas Armorer (d. 1642), of Belford, and his wife, Margaret, daughter of Robert Clavering of Callaly in the same county. Like his brother ...

Article

Bampfield, Joseph (1622–1685), army officer and spy, was probably born in Devon, one of a family long established in the west country, but his parentage and early life are obscure. There is no validity for the earl of Clarendon's later statement that he was an Irishman, although he may have been educated at ...

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Thomas Blood (1617/1818–1680) by unknown artist The Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge

Article

Blood, Thomas (1617/18–1680), adventurer and spy, was born at Sarney, co. Meath. His early life is obscure, but it was later claimed that his father (who was possibly Neptune Blood) was a blacksmith and ironworker, 'serious, honest and of no inferior credit...

Article

H. M. Chichester

revised by D. G. Halliday

Grant, John (1782?–1842), army officer and spy, was born at Elgin, Moray. He began his military career as an ensign on 2 November 1797 (lieutenant, 31 May 1798) in the Royal Glamorgan militia, with which he served in Ireland in 1799. In the same year he volunteered to the line from the ...

Article

Lamport, William [Guillén Lombardo] (1611/1615–1659), soldier and spy, was born in Wexford, Ireland, probably on 25 February 1615, although his brother affirmed that his birth was in 1611. He was the youngest of four children of Richard Lamport (d. 1636?), merchant and scion of a noble Catholic Anglo-Irish family, and his wife, ...

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Leving, William (d. 1667), parliamentarian army officer and spy, was a native of co. Durham, although his parentage and early life are very obscure. He served as a junior officer in the regiment of Sir Arthur Hesilrige in the course of the civil war. In 1659–60 he took the part of ...

Article

St Lawrence, Christopher, ninth Baron Howth (d. 1619), soldier and informer, was the eldest son of Nicholas St Lawrence, eighth Baron Howth (d. 1607) [see under St Lawrence, Christopher, seventh Baron Howth], and his wife, Margaret Barnewall, daughter of Sir Christopher Barnewall...

Article

Women agents on active service in France (act. 1942–1944), were trained in secrecy from the spring of 1942 to work abroad as agents of the Special Operations Executive (SOE), F section, despite much opposition to the use of women in this field, because of a shortage of suitable men available for the work. Some women were already expert wireless operators, a skill essential for field agents who had to transmit regular requests for supplies from ...