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Article

Richard Garnett

revised by Troy O. Bickham

André, John (1750–1780), army officer and spy, was born in London on 2 May 1750, the eldest son of Anthony André (1717–1769), a Genevese merchant settled in the city, and Marie Louise Girardot (1721?–1813). He had at least one brother and sister. He was educated at home and possibly at ...

Image

John André (1750–1780) by John Keyse Sherwin, 1781 (after self-portrait, 1780) © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Bampfield, Joseph (1622–1685), army officer and spy, was probably born in Devon, one of a family long established in the west country, but his parentage and early life are obscure. There is no validity for the earl of Clarendon's later statement that he was an Irishman, although he may have been educated at ...

Article

Bizzarri [Bizari], Pietro (b. 1525, d. in or after 1586), historian and spy, was born probably in Sassoferrato Castello (Marche), Italy, the son of Antonio Bizzarri, a soldier who died in 1528. He must also have lived in Perugia, hence his common description as ...

Article

Blood, Thomas (1617/18–1680), adventurer and spy, was born at Sarney, co. Meath. His early life is obscure, but it was later claimed that his father (who was possibly Neptune Blood) was a blacksmith and ironworker, 'serious, honest and of no inferior credit' (...

Image

Thomas Blood (1617/1818–1680) by unknown artist The Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge

Article

Chester, Charles (c. 1554–1604), informer and wit, probably born in Bristol, was one of ten children of Dominic Chester (d. 1575), merchant and MP, and his wife, Mary (d. 1572), the daughter of Roger Barlow, merchant and explorer, and his wife, ...

Article

Jones, David (fl. 1675–1720), spy and historian, was the son of the Revd John Jones of Llanbadarn Odwyn, Cardiganshire, one of the earliest nonconformist ministers in that part of Wales. According to John Dunton, he was 'designed for the ministry, but began to teach school, and from that employment turned author and corrector for the press' (...

Article

Leving, William (d. 1667), parliamentarian army officer and spy, was a native of co. Durham, although his parentage and early life are very obscure. He served as a junior officer in the regiment of Sir Arthur Hesilrige in the course of the civil war. In 1659–60 he took the part of ...

Article

Macky, John (d. 1726), writer and spy, was a Scot of obscure birth, parentage, and education. He fled from France to London in the summer of 1692 with the first news of the intended French and Jacobite invasion from La Hogue. Although he was initially disbelieved, he was vindicated, informed on several Scottish Jacobites, and was rewarded with an appointment as a coastal inspector between ...

Article

J. M. Rigg

revised by Mihail Dafydd Evans

Macnally, Leonard (1752–1820), playwright and political informer, was born in Dublin, the only son of William Macnally, merchant of Dublin. According to biographies published in his lifetime, and probably on the basis of information provided by himself, Macnally was related to 'many of the principal Roman Catholic families in ...

Article

C. L. Falkiner

revised by Nancy J. Curtin

Turner [alias Richardson], Samuel (1765–1807), informer, born in co. Armagh, was the son of Jacob Turner (d. 1803) of Turner's Glen, near Newry, a man of property. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he entered on 2 July 1780, and graduated BA in 1784, and LLD in 1787. ...