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Aquilecchia, Giovanni [Gianni] (1923–2001), Italian scholar, was born on 28 November 1923 in Nettuno, a city of approximately 40,000 inhabitants near Anzio, south of Rome, the son of Vincenzo Aquilecchia, an officer in the Italian army, and his wife, Maria Letizia, née Filibeck...

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Armour, Peter James (1940–2002), Italian scholar, was born on 19 November 1940 at the Victoria Nursing Home, Cleveleys, Fleetwood, Lancashire, the elder son and eldest of three children of James Armour, a gas company cashier, and his wife, Anne Mary, née Monaghan of ...

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Arthur John Butler (1844–1910) by Frederick Hollyer © National Portrait Gallery, London

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A. T. Quiller-Couch

revised by Nilanjana Banerji

Butler, Arthur John (1844–1910), Italian scholar and mountaineer, born at Putney, Surrey, on 21 June 1844, was the eldest of the six children of William John Butler (1818–1894), at that time curate of Puttenham, near Guildford, Surrey, but best-known as the dean of ...

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Butler, Kathleen Teresa Blake (1883–1950), Italian scholar, was born at Bayview, Bardsea, Urwick, Lancashire, on 26 September 1883, the eldest of the four daughters and three sons of Theobald Fitzwalter Butler (1845–1914), iron merchant, deputy lieutenant for Lancashire, and mayor of Barrow in Furness...

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Castelvetro, Giacomo (bap. 1546, d. 1616), writer and teacher of Italian, was born in Modena, Italy, and was baptized there at S. Barnaba, on 25 March 1546, the third son and ninth child of Niccolò Castelvetro (d. 1578), a wealthy banker, and his wife, ...

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Dionisotti, Carlo Roberto Emilio (1908–1998), Italian scholar, was born on 9 June 1908 in Turin, the son of Eugenio Dionisotti (1866–1955), a Turinese graduate in law, and his wife, Carla, née Cattaneo (1886–1973), a Swiss national born and bred in Italy. Dionisotti felt a particular bond of affection with Italian-speaking ...

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Gardner, (John) Edmund Garratt (1869–1935), Italian scholar, was born on 12 May 1869 at 3 St James's Terrace, Kensington, the first child of John Gardner (1839–1887), member of the stock exchange, and his wife, Amy Vernon, née Garratt (d. 1937). Monica Mary Gardner (1873–1941)...

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Grayson, Cecil (1920–1998), Italian scholar, was born on 5 February 1920 at 1 Court 6, Taylor Street, Batley, Yorkshire, the second son of John Grayson (d. 1926), boiler maker, and his wife, Dora, née Hartley (d. c.1980), a seamstress. Educated at ...

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G. B. Dibblee

revised by Elizabeth Goldring

Lee [Lea], Cromwell (d. 1601), compiler of an Italian dictionary, was younger son of Sir Anthony Lee (or Lea) of Burston and of Quarendon, Buckinghamshire, and his wife, the daughter of Sir Thomas Wyatt. He was the brother of Sir Henry Lee. Cromwell...

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Limentani, Uberto (1913–1989), Italian scholar, was born in Milan on 15 December 1913, the son of Umberto Limentani and his wife, Elisa, née Levi, both Jewish. He ascribed his love of scholarship to his father, a distinguished teacher and translator of classical literature. His family was typical of the Jewish bourgeoisie of the city: close-knit, practically unorthodox, in the sense that few of the Jewish festivals were observed, and thoroughly assimilated into the Italian community. Despite the relatively benevolent attitude of the fascist regime towards ...

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Mathias, Thomas James (1753/4–1835), satirist and Italian scholar, was the eldest son of Vincent Mathias (c.1711–1782), sub-treasurer in the queen's household, and his wife, Marianne (1724–1799), daughter of Alured Popple, secretary to the Board of Trade and governor of Bermuda. Mathias's...

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Meneghello, Luigi [Gigi] (1922–2007), Italian scholar and author, was born on 16 February 1922 in the small Italian town of Malo, near Vicenza, the son of Cleto Meneghello (1892–1963), a car mechanic who also ran a small firm of local buses, and his wife, ...

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Okey, Thomas (1852–1935), basket-maker and Italian scholar, was born on 30 September 1852 at 16 Quaker Street, Spitalfields, London, one of eight children of Thomas Okey, a basket-maker, and his wife, Maria, née Biggs. After elementary school in Bethnal Green, he too was apprenticed at thirteen as a basket-maker, a trade he followed for over thirty years. A passionate reader, he was largely self-taught, studying French, German, and Italian over breakfast before going to work at 6 a.m., and attending evening classes afterwards. He later attended classes at ...

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Reynolds, (Eva Mary) Barbara (1914–2015), Italian scholar, lexicographer, and translator, was born on 13 June 1914 at 53 Egerton Road, Bristol, the only child of Alfred Charles Reynolds (1884–1969), composer, and later musical director of the Lyric Theatre, Hammersmith...

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Paget Jackson Toynbee (1855–1932) by Walter Stoneman, 1921 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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C. M. Ady

revised by Diego Zancani

Toynbee, Paget Jackson (1855–1932), Dante scholar, was born on 20 January 1855 at Beech Holme, Wimbledon, the third of four sons of the ear surgeon Joseph Toynbee (1815–1866) and his wife, Harriet, daughter of Nathaniel Holmes, and niece of the antiquary John Holmes (1800–1854)...

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Weiss, Roberto (1906–1969), Italian scholar and author, was born in Milan on 22 January 1906, the only son of Eugenio Natale Weiss and of Rita Fattori; his family was of Austrian origin and had settled in Italy. He received a classical education in ...

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Whitfield, John Humphreys [Humphrey] (1906–1995), Italian scholar, was born on 2 October 1906 in Longcroft Avenue, Wednesbury, near Birmingham, the son of John Allen Whitfield, commercial clerk, and his wife, Florence Kate, née Organ. He was educated at Handsworth grammar school and Magdalen College, Oxford...

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Zimmern, Helen (1846–1934), translator and author, was born in Hamburg, Germany, on 25 March 1846. She was the daughter of Hermann Theodor Zimmern a lace merchant, and his wife, Antonia Marie Therese Regina, sister of Carl Leo, a syndic of Hamburg. Alice Louisa Theodora Zimmern...