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Auty, Robert (1914–1978), philologist, was born on 10 October 1914 at 31 Tooker Road, Rotherham, Yorkshire, the second son and youngest of the four children of George Auty, headmaster of an elementary school, and his wife, Martha Louise, née Richards. Robert's sister Phyllis...

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Bailey, Sir Harold Walter (1899–1996), Indo-Iranian scholar and philologist, was born on 16 December 1899 at 54 Northgate Street, Devizes, Wiltshire, one of three sons of Frederick Charles Bailey, labourer, and his wife, Emma Jane, née Richardt. When he was ten his parents moved to ...

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Sir Harold Walter Bailey (1899–1996) by Ronald Way, 1972 © reserved / The President and Fellows of Queens' College, Cambridge

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Bowrey, Thomas (d. 1713), merchant and compiler of the first Malay–English dictionary, is of obscure origins. It may be that he was the son of one Thomas Bowrey of Wapping, Middlesex, mariner, and he was certainly kin to some of the Wapping Bowreys...

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Edmund Castell (bap. 1606, d. 1686) by William Faithorne the elder, pubd 1669 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Castell, Edmund (bap. 1606, d. 1686), orientalist and lexicographer, was baptized on 4 January 1606 at East Hatley, Cambridgeshire, the second son of Robert Castell, a man of property and education, and his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Edmund Alleyn of Hatfield Peverel, Essex...

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Evans, Daniel Silvan (1818–1903), Welsh scholar and lexicographer, born at Fron Wilym Uchaf, Llannarth, Cardiganshire, on 11 January 1818, was the son of Silvanus Evans, a farmer, and his wife, Sarah. He attended a nearby school for two months at a house called ...

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Gardiner, Sir Alan Henderson (1879–1963), Egyptologist and linguistic scholar, was born on 29 March 1879 in Eltham, Kent, the younger son of Henry John Gardiner (1843–1940), director (later chairman) of the textile company Bradbury, Greatorex & Co., and his wife, Clara Elizabeth, née...

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Haliday [O'Hara], William [pseud. Edmond O'Connell] (1788–1812), grammarian of Irish, was born in Dublin, the son of William Haliday, or Halliday, an apothecary; he was the elder brother of Charles Haliday. He was trained as a solicitor, and learned Irish from three Munstermen who lived in ...

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Hall, Fitzedward (1825–1901), oriental scholar and philologist, was born at Troy, New York, on 21 March 1825, the eldest of the family of five sons and one daughter of Daniel Hall, a lawyer, and his wife, Anginetta (or Anjinette) Fitch. A younger brother, ...

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Hawkins, John (c. 1587–c. 1641), grammarian and translator, belonged to the old Catholic family of Hawkins from Nash Court, Boughton under Blean, Kent. He was the son of Sir Thomas Hawkins (1548/9–1617), landowner, and his wife, Ann, née Pettyt (1551/2–1616). Two of his elder brothers, ...

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See Hoernlé, (Reinhold Friedrich) Alfred

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Krapf, (Johann) Ludwig (1810–1881), linguist of Swahili and first protestant missionary in east Africa, was born on 11 January 1810 at Derendingen near Tübingen, in the kingdom of Württemberg, the youngest of four children of Johann Jakob Krapf (1773–1846), peasant farmer, and his wife, ...

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G. B. Dibblee

revised by Elizabeth Goldring

Lee [Lea], Cromwell (d. 1601), compiler of an Italian dictionary, was younger son of Sir Anthony Lee (or Lea) of Burston and of Quarendon, Buckinghamshire, and his wife, the daughter of Sir Thomas Wyatt. He was the brother of Sir Henry Lee. Cromwell...

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Gordon Goodwin

revised by John D. Haigh

Lloyd, Hannibal Evans (1770–1847), philologist and translator, was born in London on 30 May 1770, and was baptized at St Mary Marylebone on the day of his birth, the son of Henry Humphrey Evans Lloyd (c. 1718–1783) and his wife, Mary, the sister of the ...

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Morris, Richard (1833–1894), scholar of early English and philologist, was born at Bermondsey, London, on 8 September 1833, the son of David Morris, a Welsh hatter. He trained as an elementary schoolmaster at St John's College, Battersea, Surrey, though his education was largely self-acquired. On 16 March 1856 he married ...

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Friedrich Max Müller (1823–1900) by George Frederic Watts, 1894–5 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Müller, Friedrich Max (1823–1900), Sanskritist and philologist, was born on 6 December 1823 in Dessau, the capital of the small duchy of Anhalt-Dessau in Germany, the only son of the popular lyric poet Willhelm Müller (1794–1827), and his wife, Adelheid (1799?–1883), elder daughter of ...

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Norris, Edwin (1795–1872), linguist and Assyriologist, was born on 24 October 1795 in Taunton, Somerset, the son of a printer from a prominent local family that migrated from Devon in the sixteenth century. He was educated at a local school where the headmaster was his uncle ...

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O'Connell, Peter [Peadar Ó Conaill] (1754/5–1826), Irish scholar and lexicographer, was born at Carne, now Money Point, about 5 miles east of Kilrush in co. Clare, in an Irish-speaking district. Nothing is known of his parents (he had a brother, Patrick) or his early education. A 'tall, gaunt, swarthy man, large-limbed and black-haired, dark-eyed, and strongly built' (...