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Armstrong, Wallace Edwin (1896–1980), anthropologist and economist, was born on 24 February 1896 at 2 Deerbrook Road, Norwood, London, the second of three sons of William Wallace Armstrong, a civil servant with the Local Government Board, and his wife, Alice Imeson of Herne Hill, London...

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Bates [née Dwyer], Daisy May (1859–1951), anthropologist and social worker among Aboriginal Australians, was born around 16 October 1859, at Roscrea, co. Tipperary, Ireland, the third of four children of Edward Dwyer, shopkeeper and small farmer, and his wife Bridget, née Hunt...

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Marya Antonina Czaplicka (1884–1921) by F. A. Swaine, pubd 1916 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Czaplicka, Marya Antonina [Marie Antoinette] (1884–1921), anthropologist, was born on 25 October 1884 in Warsaw, daughter of Felix Lubicz Czaplicki and Sophie Zawisza. Educated and trained as a geography teacher in Warsaw and Libau (now Liepaja, Latvia) between 1894 and 1905, from 1906 to 1909 she studied natural history in the ...

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Douglas [née Tew], Dame (Margaret) Mary (1921–2007), social anthropologist, was born on 25 March 1921 in San Remo, Italy, where her parents, Phyllis Margaret Twomey (1900–1933) and Gilbert Charles Tew (1884–1951), had disembarked to take a late honeymoon on their passage home from ...

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Dame (Margaret) Mary Douglas (1921–2007) by Mayotte Magnus, 1976 © Mayotte Magnus; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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Dover, Cedric Cyril (1904–1961), entomologist, anthropologist, and poet, was born on 11 April 1904 in Calcutta to Eurasian parents, Percy and Sophy Dover. He was a descendant of Colonel James Skinner, the founder of what became Skinner's Horse, himself born to a Scottish father and a ...

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Haimendorf, Christoph von Fürer- (1909–1995), anthropologist, was born in Vienna on 27 July 1909. Members of his family had served the Habsburg dynasty since the year 1273 and one of them had been a famous traveller through Egypt, Palestine, and Arabia in the early sixteenth century. His father was ...

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Layard, John Willoughby (1891–1974), anthropologist and psychologist, was born on 27 November 1891 at 68 Palace Garden Terrace, Kensington, London, the second surviving child and first surviving son of George Somes Layard (1857–1925), a barrister and author, and his wife, Eleanor Byng, née...

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Leakey [née Nicol], Mary Douglas (1913–1996), archaeologist and palaeoanthropologist, was born on 6 February 1913 at Trevor Square, Knightsbridge, London, the only child of Erskine Edward Nicol (d. 1926), landscape artist, and his wife, Cecilia Marion Frere (d. 1946), an amateur painter. After spending the First World War years in ...

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Lienhardt, (Ronald) Godfrey (1921–1993), anthropologist, was born on 17 January 1921 at 19 Fernbank Road, Bradford, Yorkshire, the elder of the two sons of Godfrey Lienhardt, a textile merchant from Switzerland, and his Yorkshire wife, Jennie, née Benn. He was educated at Eastborough council school, Dewsbury...

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Bronisław Kasper Malinowski (1884–1942) by Samuel Kravitt, c. 1939–40 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Malinowski, Bronisław Kasper (1884–1942), anthropologist, was born on 7 April 1884 in Cracow, Galicia (then part of the Austro-Hungarian empire, now Poland), the only child of Lucjan (Lucian) Feliks Jan Malinowski (1839–1898) and Józefa Eleonora Zenosia Malinowska, née Łącka (1848–1918). Both parents were of noble descent (...

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McPherson, Joseph Williams (1866–1946), colonial official and anthropologist, was born at Brislington, near Bristol, on 29 August 1866, the youngest of six sons of Dougal McPherson (1824–1883), superintendent of Brislington House Asylum, and his wife, Eliza Williams (1823–1900). Both parents were strict covenanting Christians from the Scottish highlands, where his father had been an estate manager. ...

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Pritchard, Sir Edward Evan Evans- (1902–1973), social anthropologist, was born on 21 September 1902 at Crowborough, Sussex, the younger of two sons, the only children of the Revd Thomas John Evans-Pritchard (d. 1929), a Welsh-speaking Church of England clergyman from Caernarfon, and his wife, ...

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Rivers, Julian Alfred Lane Fox Pitt- (1919–2001), social anthropologist and Hispanist, was born on 16 March 1919 at 41 Hans Place, Chelsea, London, the second son of George Henry Lane Fox Pitt-Rivers (1890–1966), landowner and anthropologist, and his first wife, the Hon. Emily Rachel Forster...

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Julian Alfred Lane Fox Pitt- Rivers (1919–2001) by unknown photographer private collection

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Turner, Victor Witter (1920–1983), social anthropologist, was born on 28 May 1920 at 13 Riverside Road, Cathcart, Glasgow, the only child of Captain Norman Turner (1895–1975), electrical engineer and officer in the Royal Flying Corps during the First World War, and Violet, née...