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Edward Clodd (1840–1930) by Emil Otto Hoppé, c. 1909 by permission of the E. O. Hoppé Trust, Curatorial Assistance, Inc., Los Angeles; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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E. S. P. Haynes

revised by J. F. M. Clark

Clodd, Edward (1840–1930), banker and popular anthropologist, was born at Queen Street, Margate, Kent, on 1 July 1840, the eldest child of Edward Clodd and his wife, Susan Parker. Of his six brothers and sisters four died in infancy and two did not survive childhood. His father was a ...

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Dingwall, Eric John (1891?–1986), anthropologist and librarian, was born in Nuwara Eliya, Ceylon, the only son of Alexander Harvey Dingwall (1860–1936), a tea planter, and his wife, Catherine Emily, formerly Marson (1863?–1932). He seems not to have known his date of birth, but for official purposes would put down 21 April 1891. His death certificate gives his year of birth as 1890. He was educated at ...

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Gellner, Ernest André (1925–1995), social philosopher and anthropologist, was born on 9 December 1925 in Paris, the elder of two children of Jewish parents, Rudolf Gellner (1897–1987), a lawyer, and his wife, Anna, née Fantl (1894–1954), both from Czechoslovakia. The family returned to ...

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Ernest André Gellner (1925–1995) by Geoff Howard, 1979 Geoff Howard / Camera Press, London

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Bronisław Kasper Malinowski (1884–1942) by Samuel Kravitt, c. 1939–40 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Malinowski, Bronisław Kasper (1884–1942), anthropologist, was born on 7 April 1884 in Cracow, Galicia (then part of the Austro-Hungarian empire, now Poland), the only child of Lucjan (Lucian) Feliks Jan Malinowski (1839–1898) and Józefa Eleonora Zenosia Malinowska, née Łącka (1848–1918). Both parents were of noble descent (...

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Romanes, George John [pseuds. Physicus, Metaphysicus] (1848–1894), evolutionary biologist, was born in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, on 20 May 1848, the third son of the Revd George Romanes and Isabella Gair Smith. His father, who taught Greek at the small university in ...

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George John Romanes (1848–1894) by Elliott & Fry, 1891 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Spencer, Sir (Walter) Baldwin (1860–1929), biologist and anthropologist, was born on 23 June 1860 at Stretford, Lancashire, the second of eleven children of Reuben Spencer (1830–1901) and his wife, Martha (1832–1906), née Circuit. Reuben, a pillar of Manchester congregationalism, rose from clerk to managing director of ...

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Sir (Walter) Baldwin Spencer (1860–1929) by unknown photographer reproduced courtesy of Museum of Victoria, Melbourne

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Turner, Victor Witter (1920–1983), social anthropologist, was born on 28 May 1920 at 13 Riverside Road, Cathcart, Glasgow, the only child of Captain Norman Turner (1895–1975), electrical engineer and officer in the Royal Flying Corps during the First World War, and Violet, née...

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Edvard Alexander Westermarck (1862–1939) by M. E., 1913 by courtesy of London School of Economics

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Westermarck, Edvard Alexander [Edward] (1862–1939), anthropologist, sociologist, and philosopher, was born in Helsinki, Finland, on 20 November 1862, the third son and fourth of five children of Constance Gustava Maria Blomqvist (1830–1909) and Nils Christian Westermarck (1826–1904), whose family can be traced to seventeenth-century farmers in ...