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Anderson, John (1833–1900), zoologist and ethnologist, was born on 4 October 1833 in Edinburgh, the second son of Thomas Anderson, secretary of the National Bank of Scotland, and his wife, Jane Cleghorn. His elder brother Thomas Anderson (1832–1870) was superintendent of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta...

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Ardener, Edwin William (1927–1987), social anthropologist and university teacher, was born on 21 September 1927 at 401 Hornsey Road, Islington, London, the son of Edwin Alfred Ardener, a house-painter, and his wife, Isabella Mina, née Easton. His early interests, dating from his schooldays, lay in philology, archaeology, Egyptology, and comparative religion—interests which led him to social anthropology. In 1945 he entered the ...

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Armstrong, Wallace Edwin (1896–1980), anthropologist and economist, was born on 24 February 1896 at 2 Deerbrook Road, Norwood, London, the second of three sons of William Wallace Armstrong, a civil servant with the Local Government Board, and his wife, Alice Imeson of Herne Hill, London...

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Bates [née Dwyer], Daisy May (1859–1951), anthropologist and social worker among Aboriginal Australians, was born around 16 October 1859, at Roscrea, co. Tipperary, Ireland, the third of four children of Edward Dwyer, shopkeeper and small farmer, and his wife Bridget, née Hunt...

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Bateson, Gregory (1904–1980), anthropologist and communications theorist, was born on 9 May 1904 at Grantchester, Cambridgeshire, the youngest of three sons of William Bateson (1861–1926), zoologist and geneticist, and his wife, (Caroline) Beatrice (1870?–1941), daughter of Arthur Durham and his wife, Mary Ellis...

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Beattie, John Hugh Marshall (1915–1990), social anthropologist, was born on 8 May 1915 at 14 Harthill Avenue, Allerton, Liverpool, the only son and first of the two children of John Crawford Beattie (d. 1916), a civil servant and surveyor of taxes, and ...

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Beddoe, John (1826–1911), physician and anthropologist, was born in Bewdley, Worcestershire, on 21 September 1826, the son of John Beddoe JP, a merchant, and Emma, daughter of Henry Barrer Child of Bewdley. Educated at Bridgnorth School, he studied medicine at University College, London...

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Blacking, John Anthony Randoll (1928–1990), social anthropologist and ethnomusicologist, was born on 22 October 1928 in Guildford, Surrey, the elder child and only son of William Henry Randoll Blacking, ecclesiastical architect, and his wife, (Josephine) Margaret Newcombe Waymouth. The family moved to 21 The Close, Salisbury...

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Blackwood, Beatrice Mary (1889–1975), anthropologist, was born on 3 May 1889 at her parents' home at 3 Marlborough Hill, Marylebone, London, the eldest of the three children of James Blackwood (1822–1911), publisher, and his wife, Mary (1859–1953), a nurse, daughter of John Carter Chamberlayne...

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Boyce, (Nora Elisabeth) Mary (1920–2006), scholar of Zoroastrianism, was born on 2 August 1920 in Darjeeling, India, where her parents were resting. Her father, William H. Boyce, was a judge in the Calcutta high court. Her mother, Nora, née Gardiner, was a granddaughter of the historian ...

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Breeks, James Wilkinson (1830–1872), administrator in India and anthropologist, was born at Warcop, near Brough, Westmorland, on 5 March 1830, the son of Richard and Elizabeth Breeks. He was educated at Blackheath proprietary school, and in 1847, on the recommendation of his uncle, ...

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Brown, Alfred Reginald Radcliffe- (1881–1955), social anthropologist, was born Alfred Reginald Brown on 17 January 1881 at 39 Farm Road, Aston, Warwickshire, the second son and last of three children of Alfred Brown (1834–1886), manufacturer's clerk, and his second wife, Hannah (c...

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Buck, Sir Peter Henry [called Te Rangi Hiroa] (1877?–1951), anthropologist and physician, was born in Urenui, Taranaki province, New Zealand. There is uncertainty over his birth date since it was not registered. Buck believed that he was born in 1880, but October 1877, the date recorded in his primary school register, is probably more accurate. His father, ...

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Campbell, Sir James Macnabb (1846–1903), administrator in India and ethnologist, born at Partick, Lanarkshire, on 4 October 1846, was the son of John McLeod Campbell (1800–1872), Church of Scotland minister and theologian, and his wife, Mary Campbell. His brother Donald (d. 1909)...

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Chilver [née Graves], Elizabeth Leila Millicent [Sally] (1914–2014), anthropologist and college head, was born on 3 August 1914 in Constantinople, Turkey, the only child of Philip Perceval Graves (1876–1953), foreign correspondent for The Times, from a prominent Anglo-Irish family and half-brother of the poet ...

Article

W. J. Harrison

revised by A. Bowdoin Van Riper

Christy, Henry (1810–1865), anthropologist, was born on 26 July 1810 at Woodbines, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, the second son of William Miller Christy, banker and inventor of the penny receipt stamp. Trained from boyhood to follow his father into business, he became a partner in the house of ...

Image

Edward Clodd (1840–1930) by Emil Otto Hoppé, c. 1909 by permission of the E. O. Hoppé Trust, Curatorial Assistance, Inc., Los Angeles; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

E. S. P. Haynes

revised by J. F. M. Clark

Clodd, Edward (1840–1930), banker and popular anthropologist, was born at Queen Street, Margate, Kent, on 1 July 1840, the eldest child of Edward Clodd and his wife, Susan Parker. Of his six brothers and sisters four died in infancy and two did not survive childhood. His father was a ...

Article

Croll [née Sprackett], Elisabeth Joan [Lisa] (1944–2007), Sinologist and anthropologist, was born on 21 September 1944 in Reefton, South Island, New Zealand, the daughter of Colston Robert (Bob) Sprackett (1916–1993) and his wife, Kathleen Joan (b. 1917). Her father was a Presbyterian minister from a poor background, and had defied the church's directives not to register as a conscientious objector during the Second World War. Her mother came from a long line of academics who in the mid-nineteenth century had been involved in setting up ...

Image

Marya Antonina Czaplicka (1884–1921) by F. A. Swaine, pubd 1916 © National Portrait Gallery, London