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Robert Ormston Backhouse 1854–1940 by Vivian Royal Horticultural Society, Lindley Library; photograph National Portrait Gallery, London

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Backhouse family (per. c. 1770–1945), naturalists and horticulturists, came to prominence with James [i] Backhouse (1721–1798), who founded the Backhouse Bank in Darlington, co. Durham, in 1774 with his sons Jonathan (1747–1826) and James [ii] (1757–1804). It was Jonathan Backhouse who initiated the family's connection with horticulture, by following the mid-eighteenth-century fashion for large-scale tree planting on his estates at ...

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See Backhouse family

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Courten [alias Charleton], William (1642–1702), naturalist and collector, was born in London on 28 March 1642, the son of William Courten, who died insolvent at Florence in 1655, and Lady Katherine Egerton, daughter of John Egerton, first earl of Bridgewater. Sir William Courten (c. 1568–1636)...

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A. F. Pollard

revised by Alexander Goldbloom

Parfitt, Edward (1820–1893), gardener and natural historian, born at East Tuddenham, Norfolk, on 17 October 1820, was the son of Edward Parfitt (1800–1875), head gardener to Lord Hastings, and his wife, Violet Howlet (1800–1836). He was educated at East Tuddenham and Honingham, and studied gardening under his father. He worked for some years as a gardener to ...

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Sir Hans Sloane, baronet (1660–1753) by Stephen Slaughter, 1736 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Sloane, Sir Hans, baronet (1660–1753), physician and collector, was born at Killyleagh, co. Down, on 16 April 1660, the seventh son of Alexander Sloane (d. 1666). His father, a protestant, was by profession agent for James Hamilton, second Viscount Claneboye and later earl of Clanbrassill...