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See Bartholomew family

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Burnes, Sir Alexander (1805–1841), political officer in India and explorer, fourth of the five sons of James Burnes (1780–1852), provost of Montrose, and his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Adam Glegg, chief magistrate of Montrose, was born on 16 May 1805 in Montrose. James Burnes (1801–1862)...

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James Chalmers (1841–1901) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Chalmers, James (1841–1901), missionary and explorer, was born at Ardrishaig, Argyll, on 4 August 1841, the son of John Chalmers (1802–1869), a stonemason from Peterhead. His mother, Mary, née Glen (1808–1876), came from Luss on Loch Lomond. Brought up in Ardrishaig, Lochgilphead, and ...

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H. M. Chichester

revised by Philip Carter

Clinton, Charles (1690–1773), surveyor and landowner, was born in Corbay, co. Longford, the grandson of an officer of Charles I's army who had settled in Ireland. He married Elizabeth Denniston (d. in or after 1773), who was of Scots-Irish descent, some time before the family left for ...

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Cunningham, Allan (1791–1839), botanist and explorer, was born on 13 July 1791, at Wimbledon, Surrey, first of two sons of Allan Cunningham (d. 1828), head gardener at Wimbledon House, and Sarah Juson, née Dicken, who died when he was a child. His younger brother was ...

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Elder, John [Jhone Eldar] (fl. 1533–1565), cartographer and propagandist, was a native of Caithness—a ‘redshank’, as he styled himself. He was educated on Skye and Lewis before continuing his studies at the universities of St Andrews (where he matriculated in 1533), Aberdeen...

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Gerard, Alexander (1792–1839), surveyor and explorer, was born in Old Machar parish, Old Aberdeen, on 19 February 1792, the second of the five sons of Gilbert Gerard DD (1760–1815), of Rochsoles, Lanarkshire, professor of Greek at the University and King's College, Aberdeen, and his wife, ...

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Gerard, James Gilbert (1793–1835), East India Company military surgeon and surveyor, son of Gilbert Gerard, DD (1760–1815) and his wife, Helen, daughter of John Duncan, provost of Aberdeen, and brother of Alexander Gerard and Patrick Gerard, was born in the parish of Old Machar, Aberdeenshire...

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Gordon, James [called the Parson of Rothiemay] (1617–1686), historian and map maker, was born at Kinmundy, Aberdeenshire, on 17 May 1617, the fifth son of Robert Gordon of Straloch (1580–1661) and his wife, Katharine Irvine. He probably graduated from Marischal College, Aberdeen...

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Gordon, Robert, of Straloch (1580–1661), cartographer, was born on 14 September 1580 at Kinmundy, Aberdeenshire, the second son of Sir John Gordon (c.1547–c.1600) of Pitlurg and Nichola Kinnaird, a daughter of Kinnaird of that ilk. His paternal grandfather had been killed at the battle of ...

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James Augustus Grant (1827–1892) by Samuel Hollyer (after Urquhart) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Grant, James Augustus (1827–1892), explorer in Africa, was born at Nairn, Scotland, on 11 April 1827, the fifth child and fourth son of James Grant (1790–1853), Church of Scotland minister at Nairn since 1815, and his wife, Christian, daughter of John Mackintosh. He was educated by private tutors and then successively at ...

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Harrison, John Vernon (1892–1972), geologist and explorer, was born on 16 March 1892 at Bloemfontein, Orange Free State, the son of J. Frederick Harrison, a civil engineer. Of Scottish parentage, he was educated at George Watson's College, Edinburgh, and Allan Glen's School, Glasgow...

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(Alexander) Keith Johnston the elder (1804–1871) by Maull & Polyblank The Royal Geographical Society, London

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Johnston, (Alexander) Keith, the elder (1804–1871), geographer and cartographer, was the fourth son of Andrew Johnston and his wife, Isabel, daughter of Archibald Keith of Newbattle. He was born on 28 December 1804 at Kirkhill, Midlothian, and was educated at the High School...

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Alexander Gordon Laing (1794–1826) by Samuel Freeman © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Laing, Alexander Gordon (1794–1826), army officer and explorer in Africa, was born in Edinburgh on 27 December 1794, the eldest son of William Laing, a schoolmaster and the founder of a classical academy in Edinburgh, and his wife, Margaret, the daughter of William Gordon...

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Landsborough, William (1825–1886), explorer in Australia, the third son of the Revd David Landsborough (1779–1854) and his wife, Margaret (1797/8–1834), the daughter of James McLeish of Port Glasgow, was born on 21 February 1825 at Stevenston, near Saltcoats, Ayrshire. He was one of four sons and three daughters. He was educated at ...

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David Livingstone (1813–1873) by Thomas Annan, 1864 Scottish National Portrait Gallery