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Adair, Gilbert Smithson (1896–1979), physiologist, was born on 21 September 1896 in Whitehaven, the elder child and only son of Harold Adair, manager of an iron ore mine in Cumberland, and his wife, Anna Mary Jackson, from Garstang. The family later moved to nearby ...

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Sir Joseph Barcroft (1872–1947) by Lafayette, 1933 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Barcroft, Sir Joseph (1872–1947), physiologist, was born on 26 July 1872 at The Glen, Newry, co. Down, Ireland, the second of the five children of Henry Barcroft (d. 1905), linen merchant and inventor, and his wife, Anna Richardson Malcolmson (1840–1924), daughter of ...

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Barry, Sir David (1780–1835), army surgeon and physiologist, was born on 12 March 1780 in co. Roscommon, Ireland. After showing early talent in classics and mathematics, he eventually decided upon a career in medicine. He was examined for the army in the Royal College of Surgeons...

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Bayliss, Sir William Maddock (1860–1924), physiologist, was born at Wolverhampton on 2 May 1860, the only son of Moses Bayliss, manufacturer of ironware, and his wife, Jane Maddock. After education at Mowbray House School, Wolverhampton, he had the opportunity of entering his father's business, but his interests lay in the direction of science and medicine. Nevertheless, he maintained a lifelong connection with the family business, of which he was a director....

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Sir Charles Bell (1774–1842) by John Stevens, c. 1821 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bell, Sir Charles (1774–1842), physiologist and surgeon, the youngest of the six children of William Bell (1704–1779), an Episcopal clergyman, and his wife, Margaret Morrice, the daughter of a clergyman, was born in November 1774 at Fountainbridge, at that time a suburb of ...

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Bennett, John Hughes (1812–1875), physician and physiologist, was born on 31 August 1812 at Exeter, Devon, the only son of John Stokes Bennett (1773–1829), Exeter freeman, actor, and musician, and his wife, Julia Hughes (1783–1854), an actress, daughter of Richard Hughes (d...

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Bidder, Marion Greenwood [née Marion Greenwood] (1862–1932), physiologist, was born on 24 August 1862 at 181 Coltman Street, Anlaby Road, Myton, Hull, the sixth child and younger daughter of George Greenwood (1818–1888), shipping agent and Baptist lay preacher, and his wife, Agnes Hamilton (1825–1902)...

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Brocklehurst, John Charles (1924–2013), geriatrician, was born on 31 May 1924 at 23 Newsham Drive, Liverpool, the son of Harold John Stanley Brocklehurst (1895–1980), electrical engineer and businessman, and his wife, Dorothy, née Harrison (1899–1998), both Baptists, and both from Liverpool. The family moved to ...

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Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, first baronet (1783–1862) by Maull & Polyblank, late 1850s © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Brodie, Sir Benjamin Collins, first baronet (1783–1862), physiologist and surgeon, was born on 8 June 1783 at Winterslow, Wiltshire, the fourth child and third son of Peter Bellinger Brodie (1742–1804), rector of the parish, and his wife, Sarah (1755–1847), daughter of Benjamin Collins...

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R. C. Garry

revised by David F. Smith

Cathcart, Edward Provan (1877–1954), physiologist, was born on 18 July 1877 in Ayr, Scotland, the son of Edward Moore Cathcart (c.1849–c.1886), merchant, and his wife, Margaret Miller. His father died at an early age, leaving the mother with three small children, of whom ...

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Claypon, Janet Elizabeth Lane- [married name Janet Elizabeth Forber, Lady Forber] (1877–1967), physiologist and epidemiologist, was born on 3 February 1877 at 118 High Street, Boston, Lincolnshire, the second of four children of William Ward Claypon Lane-Claypon, (1845–1939), banker, and his wife, ...

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Winifred Clara Cullis (1875–1956) by Madame Yevonde, 1944 © Yevonde Portrait Archive; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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R. E. M. Bowden

revised by Ruth E. M. Bowden

Cullis, Winifred Clara (1875–1956), physiologist and educationist, was the younger daughter and the fifth of the six children of Frederick John Cullis (1842–1931), surveyor and civil engineer of the Gloucester Dock Company, and his wife, Louisa, daughter of John Corbett of Coombe Hill...

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Daly, Ivan de Burgh (1893–1974), physiologist, was born on 14 April 1893 at Pyrmont, 43 Brinswood Avenue, Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, the second son and third of the five children of James Thomas Daly (1853–1928), seaman and engineer, and his second wife, Amy Pritchard...

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Robert Hunt

revised by Michael Bevan

Davy, John (1790–1868), physiologist and anatomist, was one of the five children of Robert Davy (d. 1794), woodcarver, and Grace Millett. He was the younger brother of Sir Humphry Davy. John Davy was born at Penzance, Cornwall, on 24 May 1790. In his childhood he appears to have been helped by his brother, and both boys acknowledged the great assistance they received from their mother. ...

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John Langdon Haydon Langdon- Down (1828–1896) by Sydney Hodges reproduced by permission of the Langdon Down Museum of Learning Disability (www.langdondownmuseum.org.uk)

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Down, John Langdon Haydon Langdon- (1828–1896), physician and expert in mental science, was born in Torpoint, Cornwall, on 18 November 1828, the youngest of seven children (three daughters and four sons) of Joseph Almond Down (d. 1853), apothecary, and his wife, Hanna Haydon...