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Banting, Sir Frederick Grant (1891–1941), physician and medical researcher, was born near the town of Alliston, Ontario, Canada, on 14 November 1891, the fourth son and fifth and youngest child of William Thompson Banting (1849–1929), a farmer of Irish descent, and his wife, ...

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Butterfield, (William) John Hughes, Baron Butterfield (1920–2000), medical researcher and university administrator, was born on 28 March 1920 at 22 Yew Tree House, Station Road, Stechford, Birmingham, the son of William Hughes (Billy) Butterfield, engineer and businessman, and his wife, Doris, née Pritchard...

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Carew, Sir Richard, first baronet (1579/80–1643?), medical experimenter and educationist, was the eldest surviving son of the poet and antiquary Richard Carew (1555–1620) of Antony, Cornwall, and his wife, Juliana Arundell (1563–1629). Personal information comes largely from two Antony House manuscript texts—a spiritual autobiography (1628–30), called ...

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Sir Cyril Astley Clarke (1907–2000) by Ruskin Spear, 1977 by permission of the Royal College of Physicians, London

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Clarke, Sir Cyril Astley (1907–2000), physician and medical scientist, was born on 22 August 1907 at 37 London Road, Leicester, the only son and second of the three children of Astley Vavasour Clarke (1870–1945), physician, and his wife, Ethel Mary (1872–1966), daughter of ...

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Sydney Arthur Monckton Copeman (1862–1947) by Walter Stoneman, 1921 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Copeman, Sydney Arthur Monckton (1862–1947), medical scientist, was born at home on 21 February 1862 in the cathedral close at Norwich, the son of Arthur Charles Copeman (1824–1896), canon and rural dean of Norwich, and his wife, Mary Metcalfe (1834–1927), daughter of deputy lieutenant ...

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Creighton, Charles (1847–1927), medical scholar, was born on 22 November 1847 at Peterhead, Aberdeenshire, a son of Alexander Creighton, a prosperous saw-miller and wood merchant, and his wife, Agnes Brand. He was educated at the local elementary school, and then at the Gymnasium...

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Donald, Ian (1910–1987), obstetrician and developer of ultrasound, was born on 27 December 1910 in Liskeard, Cornwall, the eldest in the family of two surviving sons and two daughters of John Donald (d. 1927), medical practitioner, and his wife, Helen Barrow, née...

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Farmer, Frank Taylor (1912–2004), medical physicist, was born on 18 September 1912 at Warbrick, Mount Road, Bexleyheath, Kent, the younger son and youngest of three children of Robert Crosbie Farmer (1877–1960), research chemist, and his wife, Maud Mary, née Sharpe. After education at ...

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Greenwood, Major (1880–1949), epidemiologist and medical statistician, was born in Shoreditch, east London, on 9 August 1880, the eldest son and only surviving child of Major Greenwood (1854–1917), general practitioner, and his wife, Annie (1858–1904), daughter of P. C. Burchell MB. Greenwood's two younger siblings both died of tuberculosis in infancy; his mother died of the same disease shortly after he had qualified in medicine. During ...

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Hill, Sir (Austin) Bradford [Tony] (1897–1991), medical statistician, was born on 8 July 1897 in Hampstead, London, the third of four sons and third of six children of Sir Leonard Erskine Hill (1866–1952), professor of physiology at the London Hospital medical college, and his wife, ...

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Kellaway, Charles Halliley (1889–1952), physiologist and medical research administrator, was born on 16 January 1889 in Melbourne, Australia, the eldest son in a family of five children of the Revd Alfred Charles Kellaway (b. 1856), curate to the dean of the pro-cathedral church of ...

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Sir James Mackenzie (1853–1925) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Mackenzie, Sir James (1853–1925), physician and medical researcher, was the second son and one of the seven children of Robert Mackenzie (1816–1898), a farmer, and his wife, Jean Campbell Menzies (d. 1892). He was born at his father's farm of Pictstonhill at ...

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McCance, Robert Alexander (1898–1993), physician and research physiologist, was born on 8 December 1898, at Woodbourne, near Dunmurry, south-west of Belfast, the third son of John Stouppe Finlay McCance (1865–1926), barrister and linen merchant, and Mary Letitia, née Bristow (1865–1948). (Through a mistake on his father's part, his birth certificate wrongly recorded his birth date as 9 December.) He had a younger sister, ...

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Millais, Sir Everett, second baronet (1856–1897), dog breeder and biomedical scientist, was born at Annat Lodge, near Bowerswell, Perthshire, on 30 May 1856, the eldest of the eight children of the artist Sir John Everett Millais, first baronet (1829–1896), and his wife, Euphemia (Effie) Chalmers Ruskin, ...

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C. S. Sherrington

revised by M. Jeanne Peterson

Paget, Stephen (1855–1926), writer and pro-vivisection campaigner, was born on 17 July 1855 at 24 Henrietta Street, Cavendish Square, London, the fifth child and fourth son of Sir James Paget, first baronet (1814–1899), surgeon, and his wife, Lydia (1815–1895), daughter of the Revd Henry North...

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Audrey Ursula Smith (1915–1981) by unknown photographer, c. 1950 National Institute for Medical Research

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Smith, Audrey Ursula (1915–1981), medical scientist and cryobiologist, was born in India on 21 May 1915, and baptized at Chindwara, India, one of the two children of Alan Kenyon Smith, of the Indian Civil Service, and Gertrude May Smith.

Audrey Smith entered King's College, London...