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Baker, Thomas Barwick Lloyd (1807–1886), promoter of reformatory schools, was born at the family seat, Hardwicke Court, the only son of Thomas John Lloyd Baker and his wife, Mary, daughter of William Sharp of Fulham. Like his father, Baker went to Eton College...

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Barker, Dame Lilian Charlotte (1874–1955), prison administrator, was born on 21 February 1874 in Islington, the fifth of seven children and youngest daughter of James Barker, tobacconist, and his wife, Caroline Williams. Educated at the local elementary school, she was trained at Whitelands College, Chelsea...

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Bayley, Thomas Butterworth (1744–1802), penal reformer, was born at Manchester to one of the town's well-established nonconformist families. His father, Daniel Bayley, was deputy lieutenant for Lancashire and served, along with his father-in-law Thomas Butterworth, as a trustee of Manchester's Cross Street Chapel...

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Berry, James (1852–1913), hangman, was born at Heckmondwike, Yorkshire, on 8 February 1852, one of the large family of Daniel Berry, a woolstapler, and Mary Ann Berry (née Kelley), both Wesleyan Methodists. He attended Heckmondwike day school and a boarding-school, Wrea Green Academy...

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Brise, Sir Evelyn John Ruggles- (1857–1935), prison administrator and founder of the Borstal system, was born on 6 December 1857 at Spains Hall, Finchingfield, Essex, the second son of Sir Samuel Brise Ruggles-Brise (1825–1899) and his wife, Marianne Weyland, fourth daughter of Sir Edward Bowyer Smith, ...

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Bruce, Victoria Alexandrina Katherine (1898–1951), prison governor, was born on 13 September 1898 at Kennet House, Clackmannan, the youngest by fifteen years in the family of two sons and three daughters of Alexander Hugh Bruce, sixth Lord Balfour of Burleigh (1849–1921), secretary for ...

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Bryant [née Broad], Mary (b. 1765), convict, was born in April 1765 in the town of Fowey, Cornwall, the second of the four children of William Broad, a master mariner, and his wife, Grace. In 1785, for reasons that remain unclear, although it is on record that times were particularly hard, she became a highwaywoman, and in January 1786 she was captured after holding up a woman from whom she stole jewellery worth ...

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Dame Geraldine Southall Cadbury (1865–1941) by Thomas Bowman Garvie, 1912 © Birmingham Museums Trust

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Cadbury, Dame Geraldine Southall (1865–1941), social and penal reformer, was born Geraldine Southall at 5 Highfield Road, Edgbaston, on 29 June 1865, the daughter of Alfred Southall (1838–1931), chemist, and his wife, Anna Strangman, née Grubb (1841–1912). She inherited a propensity for social activism from her Quaker parents; her father was a temperance worker who taught a working men's adult school class, while her Irish mother was a supporter of women's suffrage. She was educated at ...

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See Campbell, Robert

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Carpenter, Mary (1807–1877), educationist and penal reformer, was born on 3 April 1807 at Exeter, the eldest of six children of the Unitarian minister Lant Carpenter (1780–1840) and his wife, Anna Penn (1782?–1856), a supervisor of schools for girls. The Carpenters belonged to the intellectual aristocracy of English puritanism, a world largely set apart from the wider society. Piety, an exacting sense of obligation, and reforming principles marked the household. Though vowed to tolerance, the ...

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Margaret Catchpole (1762–1819) by Richard Cobbold, pubd 1845 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

M. G. Watkins

revised by H. C. G. Matthew

Catchpole, Margaret (1762–1819), convict and author, was born on 14 March 1762, perhaps at Nacton, Suffolk, the illegitimate daughter of Elizabeth Catchpole and a farm labourer employed by a celebrated breeder of Suffolk carthorses. When Margaret was thirteen years of age the farmer's wife was suddenly seized with illness; ...

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Clay, John (1796–1858), prison chaplain, was born in Liverpool on 10 May 1796, the fifth son of Thomas Clay (d. 1821), ship- and anchorsmith, and his wife, Mary Lowe. He was a sickly child and was seen by the family as having learning difficulties. He was sent to ...

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Crawford, William (1788–1847), prison inspector, the youngest son of Captain Robert Crawford and his wife, Mary Haw of Great Yarmouth, was born on 30 May 1788 in London, where his father ran a wine retail business. He was educated for a business career, but from 1805 to 1815 he worked at the ...

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Crofton, Sir Walter Frederick (1815–1897), prison administrator and penal reformer, was born at Courtrai, Flanders, on 27 February 1815, the second son in the family of two sons and two daughters of Walter Crofton (1784-1815) and his wife Harriet née Wauchope (1782/3-1836). His father, a captain in the ...

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Du Cane, Sir Edmund Frederick (1830–1903), prison administrator and army officer, born at Colchester on 23 March 1830, was the youngest of the four sons and two daughters of Major Richard Du Cane (1788–1832), and Eliza (1791–1870), daughter of Thomas Ware of Woodfort, Mallow, co. Cork, Ireland...

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William Eden, first Baron Auckland (1744–1814) by Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1792 Christ Church, Oxford

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Eden, William, first Baron Auckland (1744–1814), penal reformer and diplomatist, was born on 3 April 1744, the third son of Sir Robert Eden, third baronet (d. 1755), landowner, of Windlestone Hall, West Auckland, co. Durham, and Mary (d. 1794), daughter of ...

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John Ellis (1874–1932) by unknown photographer PA Photos