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Aldis, Charles James Berridge (1808–1872), physician and public health reformer, and the eldest son of Sir Charles Aldis (1776–1863), surgeon, was born in London on 16 January 1808. He was educated at St Paul's School and matriculated from Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1828; he graduated BA (1831), MB (1832), and MA (1834). ...

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Sir Henry Charles Burdett (1847–1920) by Bassano, 1897 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Burdett, Sir Henry Charles (1847–1920), philanthropist and hospital reformer, was born on 18 March 1847 at Broughton, Northamptonshire, the son of Halford Robert Burdett (1813–1864), a clergyman in the parish of Gilmorton, Leicestershire, and his wife, Alsina, née Brailsford, from Lincolnshire. The Burdett...

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Greenhill, William Alexander (1814–1894), physician and sanitary reformer, was born at Stationers' Hall, London, on 1 January 1814, the youngest of the three sons of George Greenhill (1766–1850), secretary to the Stationers' Company, and his wife, Sarah Ann. The Greenhill family had a long-standing association with the ...

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Grigg [née Dickson-Poynder], Joan Alice Katherine, Lady Altrincham (1897–1987), organizer of maternity and nursing services in Africa, was born at Hartham Park, near Corsham, Wiltshire, on 11 September 1897, the only child of John Poynder Dickson-Poynder, Baron Islington (1866–1936), and his wife, ...

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King [née Gore-Browne], Dame Ethel Locke (1864–1956), motor-racing promoter and hospital patron, was born on 3 June 1864 at Government House, Hobart, Tasmania, the younger daughter of Colonel Sir Thomas Gore-Browne (1807–1887), governor of Tasmania, and his wife, Harriet Louisa, daughter of ...

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Lane, Sir William Arbuthnot, first baronet (1856–1943), surgeon and health campaigner, was born at Fort George, near Inverness in Scotland, on 4 July 1856, the eldest child of Benjamin Lane (b. 1827), surgeon to the 80th regiment of foot, and his wife, ...

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Henry Moule (1801–1880) by unknown engraver courtesy of the Dorset County Museum

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Moule, Henry (1801–1880), Church of England clergyman and inventor of the dry earth closet, was born at Melksham, Wiltshire, on 27 January 1801, the sixth son of George Moule (1768–1830), solicitor and banker, and his wife, Sarah Hayward (1764–1835). He was educated at ...

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Florence Nightingale (1820–1910) by Goodman, c. 1857 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Nightingale, Florence (1820–1910), reformer of army medical services and of nursing organization, was born on 12 May 1820 at Villa Columbaia, Florence, where her parents were on a European tour. Their other daughter, Frances Parthenope Nightingale (1819–1890) [see Verney, Frances Parthenope], born in ...

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Read, Grantly Dick- (1890–1959), obstetrician and promoter of natural childbirth, was born at Beccles, Suffolk, on 26 January 1890, the son of Robert John Read (1851–1920), a flour miller of Norwich, and his wife, Frances (Fanny) Maria Sayer (1855–1942), of the White House, Thurlton, Norfolk...

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Smith, (William) Frederick Danvers, second Viscount Hambleden (1868–1928), newsagent and hospital reformer, was born at Filey, Yorkshire, on 12 August 1868, the only surviving son and youngest of the six children of William Henry Smith (1825–1891), newsagent and politician, and his wife, Emily Leach, ...

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Tidy, Charles Meymott (1843–1892), sanitary and analytical chemist, was born on 2 February 1843 at Cambridge Heath, Hackney, Middlesex, the third son of William Callender Tidy, surgeon, and his wife, Charlotte Meymott. After attending Hackney Church of England school, he entered the London Hospital...