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A. H. Beesly

revised by Andrew Lambert

Back, Sir George (1796–1878), naval officer and explorer, was born on 6 November 1796 at Stockport, Cheshire, the second son of John Back and his wife, Ann. He entered the navy as midshipman of the Arethusa in 1808. He was present at the destruction of the batteries at ...

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Bruce, William Speirs (1867–1921), polar scientist and explorer, was born at 43 Kensington Gardens Square, Paddington, London, on 1 August 1867. He was the fourth child of a family of eight children and had one younger brother and six sisters. His father, Samuel Noble Bruce MRCS...

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Carse, (Verner) Duncan (1913–2004), polar explorer and broadcaster, was born on 28 July 1913 at 35 Castletown Road, Fulham, London, the son of (Andreas) Duncan Carse, artist, and his wife, Florence Marion, née Soames. He was originally named Werner Duncan but this was soon changed to ...

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Chapman, Frederick Spencer (1907–1971), explorer and mountaineer, was born on 10 May 1907 at Kensington, London, the younger son and younger child of Frank Spencer Chapman, solicitor, of Oakwood Court, Kensington, and his wife, Winifred Ormond, who died within a month of the birth. She was the daughter of ...

Article

Andrew C. F. David

Cook, James (1728–1779), explorer, was born on 27 October 1728 in the village of Marton in Cleveland, North Riding of Yorkshire, the son of James Cook (1694–1779), a day labourer, and his wife, Grace Pace (1701/2–1765).

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Crozier, Francis Rawdon Moira (1796–1848), naval officer and polar explorer, was born on 17 September 1796 at Banbridge, co. Down, Ireland, the son of George Crozier (d. 1831), lawyer. He was the fifth son in the family and had at least two sisters. It seems probable that he was related to ...

Article

J. A. Steers

revised by Elizabeth Baigent

Debenham, Frank (1883–1965), geographer and polar scientist, was born at Bowral, New South Wales, on 26 December 1883, the second son of the Revd John Willmott Debenham, vicar of Bowral and schoolmaster, and his wife, Edith Cleveland. He attended the school run by his father and, after his death in 1898, by his mother, and from there went to the ...

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Farman, Joseph Charles [Joe] (1930–2013), Antarctic geophysicist, was born on 7 August 1930 at the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, Norwich, the only son and younger child of Joseph John Farman (1894–1970), a self-employed builder, and his wife, Hannah Ellen, née Ribbons (1892–1962), a primary school teacher. At the time of his birth registration the family lived at ...

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Fiennes, Virginia Frances [Ginny] Twisleton-Wykeham-, Lady Fiennes [née Virginia Frances Pepper] (1947–2004), polar explorer and expedition organizer, was born on 9 July 1947 at Mount Alvernia Nursing Home, Godalming, Surrey, the third of four children of Thomas Roy (Tom) Pepper, who owned chalk quarries at ...

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Franklin [née Griffin], Jane, Lady Franklin (1792–1875), traveller and promoter of Arctic exploration, was born in London, the second of the three daughters of John Griffin, a London silk merchant, and his wife, Mary Guillemard, both of Huguenot descent. Her mother died when ...

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Franklin, Sir John (1786–1847), naval officer and Arctic explorer, was born on 16 April 1786 in Spilsby, Lincolnshire, the ninth of the twelve children of Willingham Franklin (d. 1824), a mercer, and his wife, Hannah Weekes. He had four brothers and seven sisters, and was educated at a preparatory school in ...

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Fuchs, Sir Vivian Ernest (1908–1999), explorer and scientist, was born on 11 February 1908 at Recluse Lodge, Freshwater, Isle of Wight, the only child of Ernst Fuchs (1882–1957) and Violet Anne Watson (1874–1942). His father was German and his English mother was born in ...

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Garrard, Apsley George Benet Cherry- (1886–1959), polar explorer, was born in Bedford on 2 January 1886, the only son (there were five daughters) of Major-General Apsley Cherry-Garrard CB (1832–1907), and his wife, Evelyn Edith, daughter of Henry Wilson Sharpin. Major-General Cherry-Garrard, a distinguished soldier, inherited from his elder brother the ...

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Herbert, Sir Walter William [Wally] (1934–2007), polar explorer, was born on 24 October 1934 at 41 Neville Street, York, the son of Walter William Joyce Herbert (1905–1972), a sergeant (later captain) in the army, and his wife, Helen, née Manton (d. 1982)...

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Lashly, William (1867–1940), polar explorer, was born at Hambledon, Hampshire, on 25 December 1867, the fourth of the seven children of John Lashly (1833–1903), a farm labourer and thatcher, and his wife, Ann, née Tucker (1838–1918). He attended the village school in Hambledon...

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Lyon, George Francis [alias Said-ben-Abdallah] (1795–1832), naval officer and explorer, son of a colonel in the army, was born at Chichester, Sussex. Around 1805 he was educated at Dr Burney's naval academy, Gosport, Hampshire, and entered the navy in 1808, had the commission of lieutenant confirmed in 1814, and saw much action....

Article

R. N. Rudmose Brown

revised by Roger T. Stearn

Markham, Sir Albert Hastings (1841–1918), naval officer and Arctic explorer, was born at Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Hautes Pyrénées, France, on 11 November 1841, the fourth son of Captain John Markham RN (b. 1797) and his wife, Marianne, daughter of John Brock Wood. Clements Robert Markham (1830–1916)...

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McClintock, Sir (Francis) Leopold (1819–1907), naval officer and Arctic explorer, born at Dundalk, co. Louth, on 8 July 1819, was the eldest son of Henry McClintock, formerly of the 3rd dragoon guards, customs collector of Dundalk, and his wife, Elizabeth Melesina, daughter of the ...

Article

R. N. Rudmose Brown

revised by Margaret Deacon

Nares, Sir George Strong (bap. 1831, d. 1915), Arctic explorer, was born at Clytha, Monmouthshire, and baptized on 22 May 1831 at the nearby church of St Bridget, Llansanffraid, the third son and sixth child of Commander William Henry Nares RN (1788/9–1867) and his first wife, ...

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Oates, Lawrence Edward Grace (1880–1912), Antarctic explorer, was born on 17 March 1880 at Putney, London, one of the four children, and the elder son, of William Edward Oates (1841–1896), gentleman, of Gestingthorpe Hall, Essex, and his wife, Caroline Anne, née Buckton, of ...