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Anrep, Boris Vasilyevich, Count Elmpt in the nobility of the Holy Roman empire (1883–1969), mosaicist, came of a noble Russian family. He was born on 28 September 1883 in St Petersburg, the son of Vasily Konstantinovich von Anrep (1852–1927), a doctor who became the minister of education for ...

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Beriosova, Svetlana (1932–1998), ballet dancer, was born on 24 September 1932 at Kaunas, Lithuania, the daughter of Nicholas Beriozoff (1906–1996), dancer and ballet master, then a member of the Lithuanian State Ballet, and his first wife, Maria (d. 1941). Her grandparents had migrated to ...

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Bowlly, Albert Alick [Al] (1899–1941), singer, was born on 7 January 1899 in Delagoa Bay, Portuguese East Africa, the fourth of the ten children of Alick Pauli (1867–1927), a general dealer, and his Lebanese wife, Miriam (Mary) Ayoub-NeeJame (1874–1949). The couple married in ...

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Chrysostomides, Iouliane [Julian] (1928–2008), Byzantine scholar and teacher, was born in Constantinople on 21 April 1928 (two years before the city was renamed Istanbul), the daughter of Chrysostomos Chrysostomides, a Cappadocian entrepreneur, and his wife, Victoria, née Rizas, a Phanariot from whom she inherited her sensitivity, perseverance, and love of beauty, and who remained a major influence in her life. She was educated at the ...

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Constantine III [Flavius Claudius Constantinus] (d. 411), Roman emperor proclaimed in Britain, competed during his short reign (407–11) with the legitimate emperor Honorius to be the western Roman emperor. The pressure he exerted on Honorius's government increased its difficulty in controlling Alaric and the Goths, and thus contributed to the sack of ...

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Digby, Jane Elizabeth (1807–1881), adventuress, who was known successively as Lady Ellenborough, Baroness von Venningen Üllner, Countess Theotoky, and the Honourable Mrs Digby el Mesreb, was born on 3 April 1807, the eldest child of Captain, later Admiral, Sir Henry Digby (1770–1842) and his wife, ...

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Gabo, Sir Naum [formerly Neyemiya Borisovich Pevzner] (1890?–1977), sculptor, was born on 5 August, probably in 1890 and also probably in Klimovichi, Mogilev, in provincial south-west Russia (now in Belorussia), the seventh of the eight children of Boris Grigoryevich Pevzner...

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Gulbenkian, Calouste Sarkis (1869–1955), oil industrialist and benefactor, was born in Scutari, adjacent to Constantinople, in Turkey, on 23 March 1869, one of three sons of Sarkis Gulbenkian (d. 1894), a trader in kerosene and a provincial banker. Although he respected his family, ...

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Hill, Dame Elizabeth Mary (1900–1996), Russian and Slavonic scholar, was born on 24 October 1900 in St Petersburg, Russia, the fifth of the six children (and second of the three daughters) of Frederick William Hill (1860–1924), merchant, and his wife, Louisa Maria Wilhelmina Sophia, ...

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Home, Daniel Dunglas (1833–1886), medium, was born at Currie, near Edinburgh, on 20 March 1833, the third son of William Home (c.1810–1882), a labourer, and his wife, Elizabeth, née McNeil (c.1810–1850), and was raised as a Presbyterian. He seems to have added his middle name later because of his belief that his father was the illegitimate son of the ...

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Karsavina, Tamara Platonovna (1885–1978), ballet dancer, was born in St Petersburg on 9 March (25 February os) 1885, the daughter of Platon Karsavin. She grew up with her brother, Lev, in an artistic family (her father was a danseur, mime, and ballet teacher with the ...

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Kropotkin, Peter [Pyotr Alekseievich] (1842–1921), anarchist and scientist, was born on 27 November 1842 os at 26 Shtatny pereulok in Moscow, the son of Prince Aleksey Petrovich Kropotkin (1805–1871), an army officer who came from an old aristocratic family, and Yekaterina Nikolayevna Sulima...

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Makarios III [real name Michael Mouskos] (1913–1977), Greek Orthodox archbishop and president of Cyprus, was born on 13 August 1913 at Ano Panayia, near Paphos, Cyprus, the eldest child of Christodoulos Mouskos, a peasant farmer, and his wife, Eleni. He was educated at the village school, the monastery of ...

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Mitrinović, Dimitrije (1887–1953), philosopher and social critic, was born into a Serbian Orthodox family at Donje Poplat, a small village near Stolac in Herzegovina, on 21 October 1887, the eldest of ten children. His father, Mihailo Mitrinović, was a civil servant in charge of an experimental farm and his mother, ...

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North, Frederick, fifth earl of Guilford (1766–1827), colonial governor and philhellene, was born on 7 February 1766, the youngest of the three surviving sons of Frederick North, second earl of Guilford (1732–1792) (who as Lord North was prime minister), and his wife, Anne (...

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Novikov [née Kiréev], Olga (1840–1925), journalist and apologist for Russia, was born in Moscow on 29 April 1840. She was one of the five children of Aleksey Kiréev (d. 1849) and his wife, Aleksandra, née Alabyev. Her father was educated by ...

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O'Mahony [formerly Mahony], Pierce Charles de Lacy (1850–1930), politician and philanthropist, was born in Dublin to a Church of Ireland family on 9 June 1850, the second surviving son of Peirce Kenifeck Mahony (1817–1850), a landlord and barrister, of Kilmorna, co. Kerry...

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Pavlova, Anna Pavlovna [formerly Anna Matveyevna Pavlova] (1881–1931), ballet dancer, was born in St Petersburg on 31 January/12 February 1881 according to an entry in the register of the St Petersburg military hospital; she later changed her second name to Pavlovna...

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Polakovs [Poliakoff, Poliakov], Nicholai [performing name Coco] (1900?–1974), clown, was believed to have been born near Riga, in Latvia in the Russian empire, probably on 5 October 1900, the son of Peter Polakovs, a cobbler who eked out his meagre living by working as a property master in the local theatre, where his mother was a wardrobe mistress. Nothing more is known about her. As a youngster he persuaded his father to allow him to follow a circus career, and during a four-year apprenticeship with the circus of ...

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Ralli, Stephen Augustus (1829–1902), merchant, was born in Marseilles, France, on 30 January 1829, the only son (there were two daughters) of Avgoustis (1792–1878) and Sozonga Ralli (d. 1878). His father was a Greek merchant. Stephen was educated in Marseilles. At the age of twenty-two, in 1851, he was summoned to ...