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Aitken, James [alias John the Painter] (1752–1777), radical and arsonist, was born in Edinburgh on 28 September 1752 to George Aitken, a blacksmith, and his wife, Magdalen. The eighth of twelve children, James qualified for admission as an impoverished student to Heriot's Hospital, Edinburgh...

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Anderson, Louisa Garrett (1873–1943), surgeon and suffragette, was born at the house of her paternal uncle, 9 Lyndhurst Road, Hampstead, London, on 28 July 1873, the eldest of the three children and the only surviving daughter of James George Skelton Anderson (1838–1907), shipowner, and his wife, the pioneering physician ...

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Ansell, Gertrude Mary (1861–1932), suffragette and businesswoman, was born on 2 June 1861 at 1 Vernon Place, Bloomsbury, London, the third child and only daughter of George Frederick Ansell (1826–1880) and his wife, Sarah Cook. Her father, a scientific chemist, had in 1856 been appointed to a clerkship in the ...

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G. S. Woods

revised by Jonathan Spain

Arnold, Sir (Robert) Arthur (1833–1902), radical and writer, born on 28 May 1833 at Gravesend, Kent, was the third son of the three sons and three daughters of Robert Coles Arnold JP (b. 1797), of Whartons, Framfield, Sussex, and Sarah, daughter of ...

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Balfour [née Campbell], Lady Frances (1858–1931), suffragist leader and churchwoman, was born at Argyll Lodge, Kensington, London, on 22 February 1858, the fifth daughter and tenth of twelve children of George Douglas Campbell, eighth duke of Argyll (1823–1900), and his first wife, ...

Article

Thompson Cooper

revised by Matthew Lee

Beales, Edmond (1803–1881), radical, was born at Newnham, Cambridge, on 3 July 1803, the son of Samuel Pickering Beales, a merchant who acquired local celebrity as a political reformer, and his wife, Martha, daughter of John Curtis. He was educated at Bury St Edmunds grammar school...

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Bentham, Jeremy (1748–1832), philosopher, jurist, and reformer, was born on 4 February 1748 in Church Lane, Houndsditch, London, the eldest of the seven children of Jeremiah Bentham (1712–1792), attorney, and Alicia Woodward Whitehorne (d. 1759), the eldest daughter of Thomas Grove, a mercer of ...

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Biggs, Caroline Ashurst (1840–1889), novelist and campaigner for women's suffrage, was born in St Margaret's, Leicester, on 23 August 1840, the second daughter of Matilda Ashurst Biggs (1816/17–1866) and Joseph Biggs (1809–1895) [see under Biggs, John (1801-1871)], hosiery manufacturer, of Leicester...

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Billinghurst, (Rosa) May (1875–1953), suffragette, was born on 31 May 1875 at 35 Granville Park, Lewisham, London, the second of nine children of Henry Francombe Billinghurst (c.1832–1912), bank manager, and his wife, Rosa Ann Billinghurst, née Brimsmead. At the age of five months she suffered an illness which resulted in paralysis from the waist down. For the rest of her life her legs were strapped in irons and she relied on the use of an invalid tricycle for mobility....

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Black, Clementina Maria (1853–1922), political activist, suffragist, and writer, was born on 27 July 1853 in Brighton, the eldest girl in the family of five daughters and three sons of David Black, solicitor, town clerk, and coroner of Brighton, and his wife, Clara Maria (1825–1875)...

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Bonney, John Augustus (1763–1813), lawyer and political reformer, was born in London on 16 June 1763, and baptized on 20 June at St James's, Piccadilly, London. He was the youngest of the nine children of Thomas Bonney (1710–1764), rector of St Mary Axe, London...

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Brackenbury, Georgina Agnes (1865–1949), portrait painter and suffrage campaigner, was born at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, on 1 July 1865, the fifth of nine children of Charles Booth Brackenbury (1831–1890), an officer in the Royal Artillery who became director of the Artillery College, Woolwich...

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Bryant [née Willock], Sophie (1850–1922), educationist and suffragist, was born in Sandymount, near Dublin, on 15 February 1850, the third of the six children of the Revd William Alexander Willock, fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, mathematician, and his wife, daughter of J. P. Morris...

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Bull, Joan (supp. fl. 1928–1946), fictitious epitomist of enfranchised women, the analogue of John Bull, was created by the cartoonist David Low (1891–1963) to symbolize the women aged between twenty-one and thirty who obtained the vote in 1928 despite opposition from the '...

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Cartwright, John (1740–1824), political reformer, was born on 17 September 1740 at Marnham, Nottinghamshire, the third son of William Cartwright (d. 1781) of Marnham, and Anne (d. 1787), daughter of George Cartwright of Ossington, also in Nottinghamshire. The family had risen to prominence in the sixteenth century owing to the fortuitous marriage of ...

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Collet, Collet Dobson (1812–1898), radical and tax reformer, was born on 31 December 1812 in London. He was the eldest son of John Dobson (1778–1827), a London merchant, and his wife (and first cousin), Elizabeth Barker (1787–1875). Collet assumed the name of his maternal grandparents, as did his sister, ...

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Cooper [née Coombe], Selina Jane (1864–1946), suffragist and socialist, was born on 4 December 1864 in Callington, Cornwall, the sixth of seven surviving children of Charles Coombe, railway labourer and later railway subcontractor, and his wife, Jane Uren, dressmaker. In 1876, after her father's sudden death from typhoid fever, eleven-year-old ...

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Courtney, Dame Kathleen D'Olier (1878–1974), suffragist and peace campaigner, was born on 11 March 1878 at 1 York Terrace, Gillingham, Kent, the youngest of five daughters and fifth of seven children of Lieutenant (later Major) David Charles Courtney (1845–1909) of the Royal Engineers...

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Davies, (Sarah) Emily (1830–1921), suffragist and promoter of higher education for women, was born on 22 April 1830 in Southampton, the fourth child and second daughter of John Davies DD (1795–1861) and his wife, Mary Hopkinson (d. 1886), the daughter of a businessman from ...

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Davison, Emily Wilding (1872–1913), suffragette, was born on 11 October 1872 at Roxburgh House, Vanbrugh Park Road, Greenwich, the second of the three children of Charles Edward Davison (1822–1893), retired merchant and ‘gentleman’, and his second wife, Margaret Caisley (1848–1918). Her mother ran a shop in ...