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Barnham [née Bradbridge], Alice (1523–1604), silkwoman and benefactor, was born on 7 September 1523 at Chichester, Sussex, one of the youngest of the fourteen children of William Bradbridge (d. 1546), a successful and prosperous mercer, and his wife, Alice. Alice Barnham...

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Bass, Michael Arthur, first Baron Burton (1837–1909), brewer and benefactor, was born at Brewery House, High Street, Burton upon Trent, on 12 November 1837, the elder son of Michael Thomas Bass (1799–1884), brewer, and his wife, Eliza Jane (d. 1897), daughter of ...

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Bennett, Timothy (1676/7–1756), cordwainer and public access campaigner, is of obscure origins; details of his birth, family, and upbringing are unknown. On 19 July 1716, at All Hallows, London Wall, he married Katherine Magitt (1673/4–1749), of Kingston upon Thames, Surrey; the parish register—which also gives his wife's name as ...

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Bondfield, Margaret Grace (1873–1953), trade unionist, campaigner for women's interests, and politician, was born on 17 March 1873 at Chard, Somerset, the tenth of eleven children and third of four daughters of William Bondfield (1814–1901), foreman laceworker, and his wife, Anne Taylor (1827?–1911)...

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Brotherton, Edward Allen, Baron Brotherton (1856–1930), chemical manufacturer and philanthropist, was born on 1 April 1856 at 2 Tiverton Place, Ardwick Green, Manchester, the eldest of three children of Theophilus Brotherton, a yarn agent, and his wife, Sarah, née O'Donnell. His relatives included the educational reformer ...

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Cadbury, George (1839–1922), confectionery manufacturer and social reformer, was born at Edgbaston, Birmingham, on 19 September 1839, the third son and fourth child of John Cadbury (1801–1889), cocoa and chocolate manufacturer, and his wife, Candia (1805–1855), daughter of George Barrow, merchant and shipowner, of ...

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Carnegie, Andrew (1835–1919), steelmaker and philanthropist, was born in Moodie Street, Dunfermline, Fife, on 25 November 1835, the eldest of three children of William Carnegie (d. 1855), a damask linen weaver, and his wife, Margaret. After the age of eight he was educated at a Lancastrian school. Other influences on him—aside from his parents' poverty—were his family's nonconformity (his father was a Swedenborgian) and its Chartist sympathies....

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Coats, Thomas (1809–1883), thread manufacturer and benefactor, was born at Ferguslie, Paisley, Renfrewshire, on 18 October 1809, the fourth of at least six sons of James Coats (1774–1857), one of the founders of the Paisley thread industry, and Catherine Mitchell (d. 1857)...

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Dewar, John Alexander, first Baron Forteviot (1856–1929), whisky blender and philanthropist, was born at Perth on 6 June 1856, the second surviving son in a family of five sons and two daughters of John Dewar (1806–1880), wine and spirit merchant, and his wife, ...

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Guinness, Edward Cecil, first earl of Iveagh (1847–1927), brewer and philanthropist, was born at St Anne's, Clontarf, co. Dublin, on 10 November 1847, the youngest of the three sons of Sir Benjamin Lee Guinness (1798–1868), brewer, and his wife, Elizabeth (d. 1865)...

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Gulbenkian, Calouste Sarkis (1869–1955), oil industrialist and benefactor, was born in Scutari, adjacent to Constantinople, in Turkey, on 23 March 1869, one of three sons of Sarkis Gulbenkian (d. 1894), a trader in kerosene and a provincial banker. Although he respected his family, ...

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Hale, Warren Stormes (1791–1872), tallow chandler and benefactor, was born on 2 February 1791 at Benington, Hertfordshire, the youngest of eight children of Edward Hale (1754–1791), farmer, and his wife, Edith, née Warren (1750–1808). Before he was a year old his father died, and in 1805 ...

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Hanway, Jonas (bap. 1712, d. 1786), merchant and philanthropist, was baptized on 2 August 1712 at the parish church of St Thomas, Portsmouth, the second of four children of Thomas Hanway (bap. 1671, d. 1714), the navy's agent victualler in Portsmouth, and his wife, ...

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Haskins, Minnie Louise (1875–1957), author and industrial welfare promoter, was born at 2 Kingswood Hill, Oldland, near Bristol, on 12 May 1875, the second child and eldest daughter of Joseph Haskins (1842–1891), a grocer who acquired a pottery works at Warmley where he manufactured clay drainpipes, and his wife, ...

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G. S. Woods

revised by Roger T. Stearn

Hogg, Quintin (1845–1903), merchant and philanthropist, of Scottish descent, fourteenth child and seventh son of Sir James Weir Hogg, first baronet (1790–1876), East India Company chairman and MP, and his wife, Mary Claudine (d. 26 June 1874), daughter of Samuel Swinton of the ...

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Holloway, Thomas (1800–1883), manufacturer of patent medicines and philanthropist, was born on 22 September 1800 at Devonport, the eldest of six children and elder of two sons of Thomas Holloway (d. 1836), a baker formerly in the Royal Navy, and his wife, ...

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Horner, Leonard (1785–1864), factory inspector, geologist, and educationist, was born on 17 January 1785 at St George's Square, Edinburgh, the third and youngest son of John Horner (d. 1829), a wealthy whig linen merchant, and his wife, Joanna, née Baillie. In his youth his circle of acquaintances included ...

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Innes, John (1829–1904), property developer, and philanthropist, was born on 20 January 1829 in Hampstead, Middlesex, and baptized on 23 February 1829 at All Souls, St Marylebone, the sixth of seven known children of John Innes (1786–1869), a West Indies merchant of Mincing Lane...

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Johnston, George Lawson, first Baron Luke (1873–1943), food manufacturer and philanthropist, was born on 9 September 1873 at 2 Blacket Place, Newington, Edinburgh, the second son of the thirteen children of John Lawson Johnston (1839–1900), nutrition promoter and food manufacturer, and his wife, ...

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Lever, William Hesketh, first Viscount Leverhulme (1851–1925), soap manufacturer and philanthropist, was born on 19 September 1851, at 16 Wood Street, Bolton, seventh child and elder son of James Lever (1809–1897), wholesale and retail grocer, and his wife, Eliza, daughter of William Hesketh...