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Arkwright, Sir Richard (1732–1792), inventor of cotton-spinning machinery and cotton manufacturer, was born on 23 December 1732 at Preston, Lancashire, the sixth of the seven children of Thomas Arkwright (1691–1753), a tailor, and his wife, Ellen Hodgkinson (1693–1778). The family was rooted in ...

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Bates, Joshua (1788–1864), merchant and banker, was born on 10 October 1788 at Weymouth, Massachusetts, United States, the youngest of three children and only son of Colonel Joshua Bates (d. 1804), a leading local businessman, and his wife, Tirzah, née Pratt. He was educated at public schools and by the ...

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Berthoud, Sir Eric Alfred (1900–1989), oil industrialist and diplomatist, was born on 10 December 1900 in Kensington, London, the second son and third child in a family of four sons and two daughters of Alfred Edward Berthoud, of the private merchant bank Coulon, Berthoud & Co....

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Bethel, Slingsby (bap. 1617, d. 1697), merchant and political economist, was baptized in Alne, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, on 27 February 1617, a younger son of Sir Walter Bethel (d. 1622), gentleman, and Mary Slingsby (1582–1662), daughter of Sir Henry Slingsby...

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Carnegie, Andrew (1835–1919), steelmaker and philanthropist, was born in Moodie Street, Dunfermline, Fife, on 25 November 1835, the eldest of three children of William Carnegie (d. 1855), a damask linen weaver, and his wife, Margaret. After the age of eight he was educated at a Lancastrian school. Other influences on him—aside from his parents' poverty—were his family's nonconformity (his father was a Swedenborgian) and its Chartist sympathies....

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Craven, Sir William (c. 1545–1618), merchant and local politician, the second son of William Craven and his wife, Beatrix, the daughter of John Hunter, was born about 1545 at Appletreewick, a village in the parish of Burnsall, near Skipton in the West Riding of Yorkshire...

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Cresswell, Madam (d. c. 1698), bawd and brothel keeper, of unknown origins, was made infamous by the slanders and libels of court wits and pamphleteers on account both of her prominence in the vice trade of Restoration London and her whig politics during the exclusion crisis. As a result her image was fixed by tory pamphleteers as a wizened old crone who would stoop to any ruse in order to corrupt the virtue of young countrywomen....

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Crommelin, (Samuel-)Louis [Samuel-Lewis] (1652–1727), linen manufacturer, was born in May 1652 at Armandcourt, near St Quentin, Picardy, the son of Louis Crommelin and his wife, Mary (Marie), née Mettayer. The Crommelin family had long been landowners and flax growers in the region. Louis Crommelin...

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G. S. Boulger

revised by Juanita Burnby

Dale, Samuel (bap. 1659, d. 1739), apothecary and physician, son of North Dale (bap. 1618), silk-thrower, and his wife, Christian, was baptized on 15 August 1659 at St Olave's, Hart Street, London. Dale was apprenticed for eight years to Thomas Wells, a ...

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G. K. S. Hamilton-Edwards

revised by Geoffrey Jones

Du Cros, Sir Arthur Philip, first baronet (1871–1955), industrialist, was born in Dublin on 26 January 1871, the third of seven sons of (William) Harvey Du Cros (1846–1918) and his first wife, Annie Jane (d. 1899), daughter of James Roy, a small landowner and farmer of ...

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Foley family (per. c. 1620–1716), ironmasters and government contractors, traces its origins to Richard [ii] Foley (1579/80–1657), baptized on 28 March 1580 at Dudley, Worcestershire. His father, Richard [i] Foley, was a nailer, an occupation which at this date provided a decent living and in which ...

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Frye, Thomas (1711/12–1762), portrait painter and porcelain manufacturer, was born in Edenderry, King's county, Ireland, the second of the five sons and two daughters of John Fry (1670–1752) and his wife, Anne Harrington. His grandfather was a dragoon officer who fought with William III...

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Gardner, Sir James Tynte Agg- (1846–1928), brewer and politician, was born on 25 November 1846, at Cheltenham, the elder son of James Agg-Gardner (1804–1858) and his wife, Eulalie Emily (1819–1901), the fifth daughter and coheir of William Richard Hopkins-Northey. He had one brother and a sister. His father took the additional surname after his patronymic of ...

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Gibson, George (1885–1953), trade unionist and mental health worker, was born at 98 Cumberland Street, Glasgow, on 3 April 1885, the third son and seventh of the eleven children of Johnston Robertson Gibson (b. 1847), outdoor labourer, oil merchant, and tobacconist, and his wife, ...

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Griffiths, Sir John Norton-, first baronet (1871–1930), public works contractor, was born on 13 July 1871, at Williton, Somerset, son of John Griffiths (1825–1891), builder, and his wife, Juliet Avery (1831–1926). He was educated at Colet Court, Kensington, and Latymer School, Edmonton. At fifteen he was articled to an architect but soon enlisted in the ...

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Haslett, Dame Caroline Harriet (1895–1957), electrical engineer and electricity industry administrator, was born at Worth, Sussex, on 17 August 1895, the second of the five children of Robert Haslett (b. c.1864, d. after 1957), a railway signal fitter and a pioneer of the co-operative movement, and his wife, ...

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Horner, Arthur Lewis (1894–1968), trade unionist and communist, was born at Merthyr Tudful, Glamorgan, on 5 April 1894, the eldest son in a family of seventeen children, eleven of whom died at birth or in early childhood. His father, James Horner, was a railwayman from ...

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Horner, Leonard (1785–1864), factory inspector, geologist, and educationist, was born on 17 January 1785 at St George's Square, Edinburgh, the third and youngest son of John Horner (d. 1829), a wealthy whig linen merchant, and his wife, Joanna, née Baillie. In his youth his circle of acquaintances included ...

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Johnston, John Lawson (1839–1900), nutrition promoter and food manufacturer, was born in Roslin, Midlothian, Scotland, on 28 September 1839, the eldest son of William Johnston and his wife, Jane, née McWilliam. His father was employed in the nearby gunpowder works until he was injured, after which he worked as a cobbler. ...

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McAdam, John Loudon (1756–1836), builder and administrator of roads, was born in the west-coast town of Ayr, at 22 Sandgate, on 21 September 1756, the youngest child and second son of James McAdam of Waterhead (c.1718–1770), and his wife, Susannah Cochrane (...