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Abrahams, Israel (1858–1925), Jewish scholar and historian, was born on 26 November 1858 at 10 Finsbury Square, London, the second son in the family of four sons and two daughters of Barnett Abrahams (1831–1863) and his wife, Jane, née Brandon (1834–1895). His father was principal of ...

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John Laird

Reviser Michael A. Weinstein

Alexander, Samuel (1859–1938), philosopher, the third son and fourth child of Samuel Alexander, an Australian, and his wife, Eliza Sloman, who came from Cape Town, was born at Sydney, New South Wales, on 6 January 1859. His father, a saddler, died of consumption at the age of thirty-eight, shortly before his birth. His mother died in his house at ...

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Beloff, Max, Baron Beloff (1913–1999), historian, was born on 2 July 1913 at 21 York House, Fieldway Crescent, Islington, London, the elder son in a family of five children of Simon Beloff, general merchant, and his wife, Marie, née Katzin. Nora Beloff and ...

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Berlin, Sir Isaiah (1909–1997), philosopher and historian of ideas, was born on 6 June 1909 in Riga, Latvia, then part of the Russian empire, the son of Mendel Borisovitch Berlin (1884–1953), a prosperous timber merchant whose main business was supplying wooden sleepers for the Russian railways, and his wife, ...

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Bronowski, Jacob (1908–1974), mathematician, poet, and humanist, was born on 18 January 1908 in Łódź, Poland, the first of the three children of Abram Bronowski, haberdasher, and his wife, Celia Flatto. During the First World War the family lived in Germany, and in 1920 they moved to ...

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Cowen, Sir Zelman (1919–2011), legal scholar, governor-general of Australia, and college head, was born Zelman Cohen on 7 October 1919 in St Kilda, Melbourne, the only son of Bernard Cohen, later Cowen (1892–1975), businessman, and his wife Sara, née Granat (1893–1989). In March 1922 his father changed his surname by deed poll. Both families were part of the mass exodus of Jews from tsarist ...

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Elton, Sir Geoffrey Rudolph [formerly Gottfried Rudolph Otto Ehrenberg] (1921–1994), historian, was born at Tübingen, Germany, on 21 August 1921. His father was Victor Leopold Ehrenberg (1891–1976), a distinguished classicist and ancient historian who was the son of a banker, Otto Ehrenberg...

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Ginsberg, Morris (1889–1970), sociologist and philosopher, was born in Lithuania on 14 May 1889, the son of Meyer Ginsberg, tobacco manufacturer. He migrated to Britain, where he attracted attention as a talented undergraduate while reading philosophy at University College, London (UCL), which he entered in 1910. Such a migration was common enough at that time but, as ...

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Guedalla, Philip (1889–1944), historian and essayist, was born on 12 March 1889 in Elgin Avenue, Maida Vale, London, the only son of David Guedalla, an almond broker in Mincing Lane, who came from a Spanish-Jewish family, and his wife, Louise Soman. Guedalla's talents developed early, and at ...

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Hahn, Kurt Matthias Robert Martin (1886–1974), educationist, was born in Berlin on 5 June 1886, the second of four sons (there was no daughter) of Oskar Hahn, a businessman in the steel industry, and his wife, Charlotte Landau, who was of Polish origin. After secondary education at the ...

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Hoxter, Hans Zacharias (1909–2002), social worker and educationist, was born on 3 March 1909 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, the younger child and only son of Julius Hoxter (d. 1944) and his wife, Maria. His parents were both German Jews and educationists: his mother was the first woman teacher in a ...

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Isaacs, Jacob (1896–1973), literary scholar, was born in London on 6 December 1896, the son of the Revd Moses David Isaacs and his wife, Jessie, daughter of the Revd Moses Bregman. Isaacs's parents were Orthodox Jews, and he was brought up in the largely Jewish ...

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Judt, Tony Robert (1948–2010), historian and political commentator, was born on 2 January 1948 at 153 Lower Clapton Road, Hackney, London, the elder child of Isaac Joseph Judt, whose various occupations included hairdresser and sundriesman, and his wife, Stella Sophie, née Dudakoff. He had one sister, ...

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Karpeles, Maud Pauline (1885–1976), folk music collector and scholar, was born on 12 November 1885 at Lancaster Gate, London, the third of five children of John N. Karpeles (d. 1926?), merchant and stockbroker, a naturalized German from Hamburg, and his wife, Emily Annette (1861–1914)...

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Kedourie, Elie [formerly Eliahou Abdallah Khedhouri] (1926–1992), historian and political scientist, was born in Baghdad on 25 January 1926, the son of Abdallah Eliahou Khedhouri (d. 1964), an employee of the Iraq currency board, and his wife, Loulou Moshi, née Dangour (...

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Laski, Harold Joseph (1893–1950), political theorist, was born on 30 June 1893 at Smedley House, Cheetham Hill, Manchester, the second of the three children of Nathan Laski (1863–1941), a successful cotton exporter, and his wife, Sarah Frankenstein (1869–1945). Nathan was the most prominent figure in the ...

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Lee, Sir Sidney (1859–1926), second editor of the Dictionary of National Biography and literary scholar, was born Solomon Lazarus Lee at 12 Keppel Street, Bloomsbury, London, on 5 December 1859, the elder son of Lazarus Lee, merchant, and his wife, Jessie Davis. He had a younger brother and four sisters, of whom the eldest of the family, ...

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Lewis, David Malcolm (1928–1994), classical scholar, was born in Willesden, London, on 7 June 1928, the elder son of William Lewis, auctioneer, and his wife, Milly. His parents were both born in the United Kingdom; his grandparents were immigrants from Poland and Lithuania...

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Leyser, Karl Joseph (1920–1992), historian, was born on 24 October 1920 in Düsseldorf, Nordrhein-Westfalen, son of Otto Leyser (1885–1945) and his wife, Emmy, née Hayum (1891–1987). He was educated at the Hindenburg Gymnasium, Düsseldorf. Otto was the head of a family firm which manufactured belts and braces, a scrupulous and successful businessman, but he and his wife were Jewish and suffered constant harassment after the National Socialists came to power. Denounced by a discontented employee in 1937, ...

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Louis, Alfred Hyman (1829–1915), scholar and visionary vagrant, was born in 1829 in Birmingham, the eldest son of Hyman Tobias (or Tobar) Louis, a well-to-do merchant, and his wife, Maria. At fifteen he entered King Edward's School, Birmingham, where he began long friendships with ...