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Arkwright, Richard (1755–1843), cotton manufacturer and landowner, was born on 19 December 1755 at Bolton, Lancashire, the only son of Sir Richard Arkwright (1732–1792), cotton manufacturer, and his wife, Patience (d. 1756), daughter of Robert Holt. In 1780 he married Mary (...

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Bigland, Ralph (1712–1784), herald and cheesemonger, was born on 29 January 1712 at Stepney, Middlesex, the only son of Richard Bigland (1658–1725) of Wapping, tallow chandler, and his second wife, Mary (1676–1736), daughter of George Errington of Benwell, Northumberland. His father was a native of ...

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Bonetta [née Davies], (Ina) Sarah Forbes [Sally] (c. 1843–1880), Queen Victoria's ward, was born in west Africa (in the south-west of modern-day Nigeria) about 1843, of Yoruba descent. Few details are known about her family besides their massacre by forces loyal to the Dahomian monarch, ...

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Cavendish, William, seventh duke of Devonshire (1808–1891), landowner and industrialist, was born on 27 April 1808, in Charles Street, Berkeley Square, London, the eldest of the four children of William Cavendish (1783–1812) and his wife, the Hon. Louisa O'Callaghan (d. 1863), eldest daughter of ...

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Clerk, Sir John, of Penicuik, first baronet (1649/50–1722), landowner and coal owner, was born probably at Penicuik in Edinburghshire, the son of John Clerk (1611–1674), merchant and art collector, and Mary (bap. 1630, d. in or before 1668), the daughter of Sir William Gray...

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Isham, John (1525–1596), merchant and gentleman, was born in August 1525, probably at Ringstead, Northamptonshire, the fourth surviving son of Euseby Isham (d. 1546) and Ann, daughter of Giles Poulton, esquire. In spite of their father's modest circumstances (John received only ...

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Stuart, John Crichton-, second marquess of Bute (1793–1848), landowner and industrialist, was born on 10 August 1793 at Dumfries House, Ayrshire, the eldest son (there were no daughters) of John Stuart, Viscount Mountstuart (1767–1794), of Mountstuart House, Isle of Bute, and his wife, ...

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Whitbread, Samuel (1720–1796), brewer and landowner, was born on 30 August 1720 at Cardington, near Bedford, the seventh of eight children and the youngest of five sons of Henry Whitbread (d. 1727) and his second wife, Elizabeth Read. The Whitbread family were of prosperous nonconformist yeoman stock, farming their own land and closely associated with leading ...