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Article

E. S. P. Haynes

revised by J. F. M. Clark

Clodd, Edward (1840–1930), banker and popular anthropologist, was born at Queen Street, Margate, Kent, on 1 July 1840, the eldest child of Edward Clodd and his wife, Susan Parker. Of his six brothers and sisters four died in infancy and two did not survive childhood. His father was a ...

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Czaplicka, Marya Antonina [Marie Antoinette] (1884–1921), anthropologist, was born on 25 October 1884 in Warsaw, daughter of Felix Lubicz Czaplicki and Sophie Zawisza. Educated and trained as a geography teacher in Warsaw and Libau (now Liepaja, Latvia) between 1894 and 1905, from 1906 to 1909 she studied natural history in the ...

Article

Douglas [née Tew], Dame (Margaret) Mary (1921–2007), social anthropologist, was born on 25 March 1921 in San Remo, Italy, where her parents, Phyllis Margaret Twomey (1900–1933) and Gilbert Charles Tew (1884–1951), had disembarked to take a late honeymoon on their passage home from ...

Article

Elwin, (Harry) Verrier Holman (1902–1964), missionary and anthropologist, was born on 29 August 1902 at Pemole House, Castle Avenue, Dover, the eldest of the three children of Edmund Henry Elwin (1871–1909), bishop of Sierra Leone, and Minnie Ornsby, daughter of William Laban Holman...

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Firth, Sir Raymond William (1901–2002), anthropologist, was born on 25 March 1901 in Remuera, Auckland, New Zealand, the elder son and eldest of three children of Wesley Hugh Bourne Firth (1872/3–1977), a builder, and his wife, Marie Elizabeth Jane, née Cartmill. His sister died in infancy....

Article

Frazer, Sir James George (1854–1941), social anthropologist and classical scholar, was born in Blythswood Square, Glasgow, on 1 January 1854, the eldest of the four children of Daniel F. Frazer (1821–1900), leading partner in the long-established firm of chemists Frazer and Green, and his wife, ...

Article

W. E. Le Gros Clark

revised by Harold Ellis

Keith, Sir Arthur (1866–1955), museum curator and palaeoanthropologist, was born on 5 February 1866 at Old Machar, Aberdeenshire, the sixth of the ten children of John Keith, a farmer, and his wife, Jessica (Jessie) Macpherson. To prepare for a medical education he went to ...

Article

Leakey, Louis Seymour Bazett (1903–1972), archaeologist and palaeoanthropologist, was born on 7 August 1903 at Kabete mission station, near Nairobi, Kenya, the third of the four children of Canon Henry (Harry) Leakey (d. 1940) and his wife, Mary (known as May) Bazett (...

Article

Malinowski, Bronisław Kasper (1884–1942), anthropologist, was born on 7 April 1884 in Cracow, Galicia (then part of the Austro-Hungarian empire, now Poland), the only child of Lucjan (Lucian) Feliks Jan Malinowski (1839–1898) and Józefa Eleonora Zenosia Malinowska, née Łącka (1848–1918). Both parents were of noble descent (...

Article

Marett, Robert Ranulph (1866–1943), philosopher and anthropologist, was born on 13 June 1866 at Blanc Pignon on Jersey, the eldest child and only son of the four children of Sir Robert Pipon Marett (1820–1884), attorney-general and later bailiff, and his wife and cousin, ...

Article

Richards, Audrey Isabel (1899–1984), social anthropologist, was born on 8 July 1899 in London, the second of the four daughters of Sir Henry Erle Richards (1861–1922), professor of law, and his wife, Isabel (1867–1945), daughter of Spencer Perceval Butler of Lincoln's Inn. Her girlhood was spent in ...

Article

Risley, Sir Herbert Hope (1851–1911), administrator in India and anthropologist, was born on 4 January 1851 at Akeley, Buckinghamshire, where his father, John Holford Risley, was rector. His mother was Frances, daughter of John Hope, at one time residency surgeon of Gwalior. On 13 July 1863 he was elected a scholar of ...

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Rivers, Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt- (1827–1900), anthropologist and archaeologist, was born Augustus Henry Lane Fox on 14 April 1827 at Hope Hall, Bramham, Yorkshire, the second son of William Augustus Lane Fox (1795–1832), army officer, and Lady Caroline (d. 1873), daughter of the ...

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Rivers, William Halse Rivers (1864–1922), psychologist and anthropologist, was born on 12 March 1864 at Constitution Hill, Chatham, Kent, the eldest in the family of two sons and two daughters of Henry Frederick Rivers (1830–1911), curate, and his wife, Elizabeth Hunt. Family tradition claims that he was a descendant of ...

Article

Romanes, George John [pseuds. Physicus, Metaphysicus] (1848–1894), evolutionary biologist, was born in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, on 20 May 1848, the third son of the Revd George Romanes and Isabella Gair Smith. His father, who taught Greek at the small university in ...

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Ross, Sylvia Hope Leith- [née Sylvia Hope Ruxton] (1884–1980), anthropologist and writer, was born on 30 September 1884 in London, the second daughter and last of three children of Admiral William Fitzherbert Ruxton (1831–1895) of the Royal Navy and his American wife, ...

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Spencer, Sir (Walter) Baldwin (1860–1929), biologist and anthropologist, was born on 23 June 1860 at Stretford, Lancashire, the second of eleven children of Reuben Spencer (1830–1901) and his wife, Martha (1832–1906), née Circuit. Reuben, a pillar of Manchester congregationalism, rose from clerk to managing director of ...

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Tylor, Sir Edward Burnett (1832–1917), anthropologist, was born on 2 October 1832 at Camberwell, Surrey, the third son of Joseph Tylor, who owned a brass foundry, and his wife, Harriet Skipper. Their second son was Alfred Tylor, the geologist. A Quaker by birth, ...