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Alexander, Cosmo (1724–1772), portrait painter and traveller, was born probably in Aberdeen, the son and pupil of the Aberdonian painter and engraver John Alexander (1686–c.1766), who had worked in Rome from 1711 to 1719, and his wife, Isobel Innes. John Alexander...

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Baker [née von Sass], Florence Barbara Maria, Lady Baker (1841–1916), traveller in Africa, was born on 6 August 1841, probably in a German-speaking region of Hungary. She was the sole survivor of an attack on her home in which the rest of her family died during the disturbances of 1848. Nothing more is known of her antecedents or early life. She is next recorded in January 1859 in the Turkish town of ...

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Blunt [née King], Anne Isabella Noel, suo jure Baroness Wentworth (1837–1917), traveller and breeder of Arab horses, was born on 22 September 1837 in London, the second of the three children, and the only daughter, of William King, first earl of Lovelace...

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Burton [née Arundell], Isabel, Lady Burton (1831–1896), author and traveller, was born at 14 Great Cumberland Place, London, on 20 March 1831. Descended from an old Roman Catholic family, her father was Henry Raymond Arundell, a lineal descendant of the sixth Baron Arundell of Wardour...

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Crèvecoeur, J. Hector St John de (1735–1813), writer on America and farmer, was born on 31 January 1735 in Caen, Normandy, and baptized Michel-Guillaume Jean de Crèvecoeur. The son of Guillaume-Augustin Jean de Crèvecoeur, a substantial landowner and member of the provincial nobility, and ...

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Dixie [née Douglas], Lady Florence Caroline (1855–1905), author and traveller, was born in Kinmount, Cummertrees, Dumfriesshire, on 24 May 1855, one of a pair of twins, the youngest of the six children of Archibald William Douglas, eighth marquess of Queensberry (1818–1858), and his wife, ...

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Gascoigne, Sir Thomas, eighth baronet (1745–1810), traveller and politician, was born on 7 March 1745 at the English Benedictine convent at Cambrai, France. He was the sixth child and third son of Sir Edward Gascoigne, sixth baronet (1697–1750), of Parlington, west Yorkshire, and his wife, ...

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Harriman [née Digby; other married names Churchill, Hayward], Pamela Beryl (1920–1997), adventurer and diplomatist, was born on 20 March 1920 at Farnborough, Kent, the eldest of three daughters and oldest of the four children of Edward Kenelm Digby, eleventh Baron Digby...

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Hutton, Edward (1875–1969), Italophile and travel writer, was born at Cambridge Villa, Ealing, Middlesex, on 12 April 1875, the eldest child in the family of five sons and one daughter of James Edward Hutton (1838–1890) and his wife, Sarah Abraham, née Salmon (...

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Louis, Alfred Hyman (1829–1915), scholar and visionary vagrant, was born in 1829 in Birmingham, the eldest son of Hyman Tobias (or Tobar) Louis, a well-to-do merchant, and his wife, Maria. At fifteen he entered King Edward's School, Birmingham, where he began long friendships with ...

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MacGregor, Gregor (1786–1845), soldier and adventurer, was the grandson of Gregor MacGregor Drummond who had enlisted in the forerunner of the Black Watch (then Sempill's Highlanders), served abroad with distinction, and been instrumental in obtaining the repeal of legislation which had outlawed the clan ...

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Palgrave, William Gifford (1826–1888), traveller and diplomatist, was born at 22 Parliament Street, Westminster, London, on 24 January 1826. He was the second son of Sir Francis Palgrave (1788–1861), founder of the Public Record Office, whose name had been Francis Cohen until in 1823 he converted to the ...

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Psalmanazar, George (1679–1763), impostor and author, was born in southern France under a name that is now unknown and to parents whose names, like that of his place of birth, he does not mention in his Memoirs (published posthumously in 1764), the only source of information about his early life. For an important and lengthy period of his life he claimed to be a native of ...

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Shen Fuzong [Michael Alphonsus] (c. 1658–1691), traveller and convert to Christianity, was born at Nanking (Nanjing) in Kiangnan (Jiangnan) province along the southern side of the Yangtze (Yangzi) River in the Qing empire. His father, a physician, probably converted to Catholicism in the 1670s. Following this the young ...

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Sherley [Shirley], Anthony [known as Sir Anthony Sherley], Count Sherley in the nobility of the Holy Roman empire (1565–1636?), adventurer and diplomat in the Persian service, was born at the family estate of Wiston in Sussex, one of nine children of Sir Thomas Sherley (c. 1542–1612)...

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Snow, Sebastian Edward Farquharson (1929–2001), explorer and author, was born at Ambletts, Chithurst, near Midhurst, Sussex, on 21 January 1929, the elder son of Sebastian Richard Eustace Snow, barrister and owner of the last private bank in Exeter, an eccentric old gentleman whom contemporaries remembered for regularly lighting cigarettes during services in ...

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Sombre, David Ochterlony Dyce (1808–1851), traveller and putative lunatic, was born in Sardhana, a semi-autonomous princely state near Meerut, India, on 18 December 1808, the eldest of the three surviving children of Colonel George Alexander Dyce (d. 1838), of mixed Scottish and Indian ancestry, and ...

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Sykes, Sir Mark, sixth baronet (1879–1919), traveller and politician, was born on 17 March 1879 in London, the only son of Sir Tatton Sykes, fifth baronet (1826–1913) [see under Sykes, Sir Tatton], of Sledmere, and his wife, (Christina Anne) Jessica (...

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E. I. Carlyle

Reviser Todd M. Endelman

Wolff, Joseph (1795–1862), missionary and traveller, son of David Levi, rabbi, and his wife, Sarah, daughter of Isaac Lipchowitz of Bretzfeld, was born at Weilersbach, near Forchheim and Bamberg, in Franconia. Given the name Wolff at his circumcision eight days after his birth, he took the forename ...