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Anning, Mary (1799–1847), fossil collector and dealer, was born on 21 May 1799 in a seaside house in Lyme Regis, Dorset. She and her brother Joseph (1796–1849) were the only surviving children of Richard Anning (c.1766–1810), cabinet-maker and carpenter, and his wife, ...

Article

J. T. MacGregor-Morris

revised by Graeme J. N. Gooday

Fleming, Sir (John) Ambrose (1849–1945), electrical engineer and university teacher, was born at a house named Greenfield, in Lancaster, on 29 November 1849, eldest of the seven children of James Fleming DD (d. 1879), a Congregational minister, and his wife, Mary Ann...

Article

Frankland, Sir Edward (1825–1899), chemist, was born on 18 January 1825 at Churchtown, Garstang, Lancashire, the son of Margaret Frankland (1797–1881), daughter of John Frankland (1770–1811), calico printer, and his wife, Molly (née Dunderdale). Frankland's father, to whom his mother was not married, was ...

Article

Kennedy, Sir Alexander Blackie William (1847–1928), mechanical and electrical engineer, born at 20 Stepney Green, Stepney, London, on 17 March 1847, was the eldest son of John Kennedy, Congregational minister, and his wife, Helen Stodart, daughter of Alexander Blackie, bank manager, of Aberdeen...

Article

W. T. Calman

revised by Margaret Deacon

M'Intosh, William Carmichael (1838–1931), zoologist, was born at St Andrews on 10 October 1838, the only son and fourth of six children of John M'Intosh (1804–1897), builder and town councillor of St Andrews, and his wife, Elizabeth (Eliza; 1801–1881), third daughter of Robert Mitchell...

Article

Robinson, Sir Robert (1886–1975), chemist, was born on 13 September 1886 at Rufford Farm, Barlow Road, Chesterfield, the eldest of five children of William Bradbury Robinson (1826–1911), textile manufacturer, and his second wife, Jane Davenport (1863–1950). His mother was a member of an old ...

Article

Scott, Charlotte Angas (1858–1931), mathematician, was born in Lincoln on 8 June 1858, daughter of Caleb Scott (d. 1919) and his wife, Eliza Ann, née Exley. She came from a Congregational background, and moved with her family when she was seven to ...

Article

Spencer, Sir (Walter) Baldwin (1860–1929), biologist and anthropologist, was born on 23 June 1860 at Stretford, Lancashire, the second of eleven children of Reuben Spencer (1830–1901) and his wife, Martha (1832–1906), née Circuit. Reuben, a pillar of Manchester congregationalism, rose from clerk to managing director of ...

Article

Titchmarsh, Edward Charles (1899–1963), mathematician, was born at Newbury on 1 June 1899, the son of Edward Harper Titchmarsh and his wife, Caroline Farmar. He had an elder sister and a younger sister and brother. His father was minister of the Congregational church at ...

Article

P. J. Hartog

revised by R. G. W. Anderson

Wilson, George (1818–1859), chemist and museum director, the son of Archibald Wilson (1784–1843), a wine merchant from Argyll, and his wife, Janet Aitken, was born at Edinburgh on 21 February 1818 with a twin brother, John, who died in 1836. His elder brother, ...

Article

Winthrop, John (1714–1779), scientist, was born on 8 December 1714 in Boston, Massachusetts, and baptized on 12 December 1714 at Boston's North Church, the son of Adam Winthrop (1676–1743), judge and merchant, and his wife, Anne Wainwright (c.1680–c.1755). As the fifth-generation descendant of the ...

Article

Wooldridge, Sidney William (1900–1963), geomorphologist and geographer, was born in Hornsey, north London, on 16 November 1900, younger son (there was also a daughter) of Lewis William Wooldridge, bank manager, and his wife, Helen Chadwick. His early childhood was spent in Cheam, Surrey...