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Albery, Nicholas Bronson (1948–2001), social activist and charity founder, was born on 28 July 1948 at Bricket House, Bricket Road, St Albans, Hertfordshire, the second of three children of Sir Donald Arthur Rolleston Albery (1914–1988), theatre owner and theatrical manager, and his second wife, ...

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Allen, (Reginald) Clifford, Baron Allen of Hurtwood (1889–1939), politician and peace campaigner, was born at St Olave's, Slow Park, Newport, Monmouthshire, on 9 May 1889. As an adult he was always known as Clifford Allen, or by close friends as CA. He had a brother, ...

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Andrews, Charles Freer (1871–1940), author and campaigner for Indian independence, was born at Newcastle upon Tyne on 12 February 1871, the second son of John Edwin Andrews, minister in the Catholic Apostolic (or Irvingite) church, and his second wife, Mary Charlotte Cartwright (1840–1914)...

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Angell, Sir (Ralph) Norman [formerly Ralph Norman Angell Lane] (1872–1967), peace campaigner and author, was born on 26 December 1872 in the Mansion House, Holbeach, Lincolnshire, the sixth of seven children of Thomas Angell Lane JP, who owned a small chain of shops, and his wife, ...

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Archer, John Richard (1863–1932), local politician and Pan-Africanist, was born on 8 June 1863 at 3 Blake Street, Liverpool, the son of Richard Archer, a ship's steward, and his wife, Mary Theresa, née Burns. His father hailed from Barbados, his mother from Ireland...

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Benn, Sir Ernest John Pickstone, second baronet (1875–1954), publisher and libertarian, was born in Ferncliffe Road, Hackney, London, on 25 June 1875, the eldest child of the four sons and two daughters of Sir John Williams Benn, first baronet (1850–1922), publisher and Liberal member of ...

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Birch [formerly Catlin-Birch], Reginald (1914–1994), trade unionist and political activist, was born Reginald Catlin-Birch on 7 June 1914 at 4 Chichester Terrace, Kilburn, London, one of the five children of Charles Catlin-Birch (d. 1928), house painter and builder, and his wife, ...

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Black, Clementina Maria (1853–1922), political activist, suffragist, and writer, was born on 27 July 1853 in Brighton, the eldest girl in the family of five daughters and three sons of David Black, solicitor, town clerk, and coroner of Brighton, and his wife, Clara Maria (1825–1875)...

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Blyden, Edward Wilmot (1832–1912), advocate of pan-Africanism, was born on 3 August 1832 on the island of St Thomas (then under Danish rule) in the West Indies. He was the third of the seven children of Romeo Blyden, a tailor, and his wife, ...

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Britannia (fl. 1st–21st cent.), allegory of a nation, emblem of empire, and patriotic icon, is by origin a child of Rome, representing an outpost of the Roman empire. Her earliest known appearances did not augur well for her future: rock reliefs at Aphrodisias...

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Bull, John (supp. fl. 1712–), fictitious epitomist of Englishness and British imperialism, first appeared in print in The History of John Bull, a political allegory—sometimes wrongly attributed to Jonathan Swift, but now accepted as the work of John Arbuthnot, Queen Anne's physician. The ...

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T. F. Henderson

revised by David Lammey

Burgh, Walter Hussey (1742–1783), politician and orator, was the son of Ignatius Hussey, barrister, of Donore, co. Kildare, and his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Burgh of Oldtown in the same county. He was born in co. Kildare on 23 August 1742. After attending the school of a ...

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Cahill, Joseph [Joe] (1920–2004), Irish republican activist, was born on 19 May 1920 at 60 Divis Street, Belfast, the eldest son and first of the eleven children of Joseph Cahill, printer, and his wife, Josephine, née Mulholland. A Roman Catholic, he attended St Mary's Christian Brothers School...

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Cary [née Shadd], Mary Ann Camberton (1823–1893), schoolmistress, newspaper editor, and political activist, was born on 9 October 1823 in Wilmington, Delaware, eldest of thirteen children of Abraham Doras Shadd (1801–1882), a shoemaker, and his wife, Harriet Parnell (1806–1880). Free African Americans in a slave state, prominent in the anti-slavery and negro convention movements, her family moved to ...

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Cecil, (Edgar Algernon) Robert Gascoyne- [known as Lord Robert Cecil], Viscount Cecil of Chelwood (1864–1958), politician and peace campaigner, always best-known as Lord Robert Cecil, was born on 14 September 1864 at 11 Duchess Street, Portland Place, London, the third son in the family of five sons and three daughters of ...

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Chilembwe, John (c. 1870–1915), Baptist minister and anti-colonial rebel, was probably born at Sangano, Chiradzulu, in modern Malawi, of a Yao father (reportedly called Kaundama), and a Mang'anja or Cewa slave mother (reportedly called Nyangu). Very little is known of his early life. He acquired a basic knowledge of English from one of the earliest outposts of Scottish Presbyterian missionaries. In 1892 he became ‘cook boy’ to the recently arrived independent English missionary ...

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Colomb, Sir John Charles Ready (1838–1909), defence strategist and advocate of imperial federation, second son of Lieutenant-General George Thomas Colomb (1788–1874), colonel of the 97th regiment, and his wife, Mary, daughter of Sir Abraham Bradley King, bt, of Corrard, co. Fermanagh, was born on the ...

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Cornford, (Rupert) John (1915–1936), poet and political activist, was born in Cambridge on 27 December 1915, the eldest son and second of the five children (three sons and two daughters) of Francis Macdonald Cornford (1874–1943), professor of ancient philosophy at Cambridge University, and his wife, ...

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Courtney [née Potter], Catherine [Kate], Lady Courtney of Penwith (1847–1929), social worker and internationalist, was born on 4 April 1847 at Gayton Hall, Herefordshire, the second of nine daughters of Richard Potter (1817–1892), railway entrepreneur and speculator, and his wife, Lawrencina, née...

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Courtney, Dame Kathleen D'Olier (1878–1974), suffragist and peace campaigner, was born on 11 March 1878 at 1 York Terrace, Gillingham, Kent, the youngest of five daughters and fifth of seven children of Lieutenant (later Major) David Charles Courtney (1845–1909) of the Royal Engineers...