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Bates, Joshua (1788–1864), merchant and banker, was born on 10 October 1788 at Weymouth, Massachusetts, United States, the youngest of three children and only son of Colonel Joshua Bates (d. 1804), a leading local businessman, and his wife, Tirzah, née Pratt. He was educated at public schools and by the ...

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Berthoud, Sir Eric Alfred (1900–1989), oil industrialist and diplomatist, was born on 10 December 1900 in Kensington, London, the second son and third child in a family of four sons and two daughters of Alfred Edward Berthoud, of the private merchant bank Coulon, Berthoud & Co....

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Craven, Sir William (c. 1545–1618), merchant and local politician, the second son of William Craven and his wife, Beatrix, the daughter of John Hunter, was born about 1545 at Appletreewick, a village in the parish of Burnsall, near Skipton in the West Riding of Yorkshire...

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Cresswell, Madam (d. c. 1698), bawd and brothel keeper, of unknown origins, was made infamous by the slanders and libels of court wits and pamphleteers on account both of her prominence in the vice trade of Restoration London and her whig politics during the exclusion crisis. As a result her image was fixed by tory pamphleteers as a wizened old crone who would stoop to any ruse in order to corrupt the virtue of young countrywomen....

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Crommelin, (Samuel-)Louis [Samuel-Lewis] (1652–1727), linen manufacturer, was born in May 1652 at Armandcourt, near St Quentin, Picardy, the son of Louis Crommelin and his wife, Mary (Marie), née Mettayer. The Crommelin family had long been landowners and flax growers in the region. Louis Crommelin...

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G. K. S. Hamilton-Edwards

revised by Geoffrey Jones

Du Cros, Sir Arthur Philip, first baronet (1871–1955), industrialist, was born in Dublin on 26 January 1871, the third of seven sons of (William) Harvey Du Cros (1846–1918) and his first wife, Annie Jane (d. 1899), daughter of James Roy, a small landowner and farmer of ...

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Frye, Thomas (1711/12–1762), portrait painter and porcelain manufacturer, was born in Edenderry, King's county, Ireland, the second of the five sons and two daughters of John Fry (1670–1752) and his wife, Anne Harrington. His grandfather was a dragoon officer who fought with William III...

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Gibson, George (1885–1953), trade unionist and mental health worker, was born at 98 Cumberland Street, Glasgow, on 3 April 1885, the third son and seventh of the eleven children of Johnston Robertson Gibson (b. 1847), outdoor labourer, oil merchant, and tobacconist, and his wife, ...

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Horner, Leonard (1785–1864), factory inspector, geologist, and educationist, was born on 17 January 1785 at St George's Square, Edinburgh, the third and youngest son of John Horner (d. 1829), a wealthy whig linen merchant, and his wife, Joanna, née Baillie. In his youth his circle of acquaintances included ...

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McAdam, John Loudon (1756–1836), builder and administrator of roads, was born in the west-coast town of Ayr, at 22 Sandgate, on 21 September 1756, the youngest child and second son of James McAdam of Waterhead (c.1718–1770), and his wife, Susannah Cochrane (...

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McCormack [née Murphy], Inez Jane Mary (1943–2013), trade unionist and human rights campaigner, was born on 28 September 1943 at 11 Lower Crescent, Belfast, the daughter of Francis Cecil Murphy, a self-employed printer, and his wife, Margaret, née Sterritt, a nurse. She had an older brother, ...

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Smythe [Smith], Sir Thomas (c. 1558–1625), merchant, was born about 1558, the second surviving son of Thomas Smythe (1522–1591), a merchant, financier, and ‘customer’ of the port of London, and his wife, Alice (d. 1593), the daughter of Sir Andrew Judde, a skinner and mayor of ...

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Sprimont, Nicholas (bap. 1715, d. 1771), goldsmith and porcelain manufacturer, was baptized in Liège on 23 January 1715, the son of Pierre Sprimont and Gertrude Goffin, and may have been apprenticed there to his uncle Nicholas Joseph Sprimont (c.1678–1744). Given his knowledge of French silver and porcelain it is likely that he also trained in ...

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Weir, William Douglas, first Viscount Weir (1877–1959), industrialist and public servant, was born on 12 May 1877, in a top flat at Albert Crescent, Crosshill, Glasgow, the eldest of three children of James Weir (1842/3–1920), and his wife, Mary, formerly Richmond (1848–1931), daughter of ...