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Bateson, William (1861–1926), biologist, was born on 8 August 1861 in St Hilda's Terrace, Ruswarp, near Whitby, Yorkshire, the second of six children of William Henry Bateson (1812–1881), master of St John's College, Cambridge, and his wife, Anna Aikin (1829–1918), daughter of James Aikin (1792–1878)...

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Bose, Sir Jagadish Chandra [Jagadis Chunder] (1858–1937), physicist and biologist, was born in the district of Vikrampur, close to Dacca, Bengal, India, on 30 November 1858, the son of Bhagaban Chandra Bose, deputy magistrate of neighbouring Faridpur, and his wife, Bamasundari. Though a Hindu, his father was one of the early members of the Western-influenced Hindu reform movement known as Brahmoism, along with his more traditionally Hindu wife....

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Carpenter, William Benjamin (1813–1885), biologist and university administrator, was born in Exeter on 29 October 1813, the fourth child and eldest son of Dr Lant Carpenter (1780–1840) and his wife, Anna (d. 1856), daughter of James Penn, of Kidderminster. He was the brother of ...

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Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–1882), naturalist, geologist, and originator of the theory of natural selection, was born on 12 February 1809 at The Mount, Shrewsbury, the fifth child and second son of Robert Waring Darwin (1766–1848), Shrewsbury's principal physician, and Susannah Wedgwood (1765–1817). His sisters were ...

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Elton, Charles Sutherland (1900–1991), animal ecologist, was born on 29 March 1900 at Withington, Manchester, the youngest of the three children, all sons, of Oliver Elton (1861–1945), literary scholar and translator, and his wife, Letitia Maynard (1865–1948), writer, daughter of the Revd Dugald MacColl...

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Fell, Dame Honor Bridget (1900–1986), cell biologist, was born on 22 May 1900 at Fowthorpe, near Filey in Yorkshire, the youngest in the family of seven daughters and two sons of Colonel William Edwin Fell, army officer, landowner, and farmer, and his wife, ...

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Frankland [née Brown], Juliet Camilla (1929–2013), mycologist, was born on 30 January 1929 at High Barn Eaves, Effingham, Dorking, Surrey, the younger daughter of Walter Henry Brown (1893/4–1956), a civil servant in the Ministry of Works, and his wife, Gerda Lois, née...

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Grant, Robert Edmond (1793–1874), comparative anatomist and transmutationist, was born in Edinburgh on 11 November 1793. He was the seventh son in the family of twelve sons and two daughters of Alexander Grant (d. 1808), a wealthy writer to the signet, and ...

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Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–1895), biologist and science educationist, was born on 4 May 1825 in Ealing, the youngest of the six surviving children of George Huxley (1780–1853) and Rachel Withers (1785–1852); an elder sister and younger brother died in infancy. His mother was born in ...

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Johnson, Dame Louise Napier (1940–2012), biophysicist and structural biologist, was born on 26 September 1940 at South Bank Nursing Home, Bath Road, Worcester, the second of the three daughters of George Edmund Johnson (1904–1992), a former wool broker then serving in the RAF...

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Lewis, Julian Hart (1946–2014), developmental and mathematical biologist, was born on 12 August 1946 in King’s College Hospital, London, the youngest child of Sir Aubrey Julian Lewis (1900–1975) and his wife, Hilda North, née Stoessiger (1900–1966), both psychiatrists. Julian...

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Lyon, Mary Frances (1925–2014), geneticist, was born on 15 May 1925 at the Maternity Home, 3 Aspland Road, Norwich, the oldest child of Clifford James Lyon (1896–1963), tax office clerk, and his wife, Louise Frances, née Kirby (1893–1986). At the time of her birth registration her parents lived at ...

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A. R. Clapham

Reviser Ghillean T. Prance

Pearsall, William Harold (1891–1964), ecologist and botanist, was born at Stourbridge, Worcestershire, on 23 July 1891, the only son and second of the three children of William Harrison Pearsall, schoolmaster and Methodist lay preacher, and his wife, Mary Elizabeth Green, of Earl Shilton, Leicester...

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Romanes, George John [pseuds. Physicus, Metaphysicus] (1848–1894), evolutionary biologist, was born in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, on 20 May 1848, the third son of the Revd George Romanes and Isabella Gair Smith. His father, who taught Greek at the small university in ...

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Sanger, Frederick [Fred] (1918–2013), biochemist and molecular biologist, was born on 13 August 1918 at the Old House, Rendcomb, Gloucestershire, the son of Frederick Sanger (1876–1937), general practitioner and medical missionary, and his wife, Cicely, née Crewdson (1880–1938), the youngest of six children of ...

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Smith, Audrey Ursula (1915–1981), medical scientist and cryobiologist, was born in India on 21 May 1915, and baptized at Chindwara, India, one of the two children of Alan Kenyon Smith, of the Indian Civil Service, and Gertrude May Smith.

Audrey Smith entered King's College, London...

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Smith, (Robert) Angus (1817–1884), applied chemist and environmental scientist, was born in Pollokshaws, near Glasgow, on 15 February 1817, the seventh son and twelfth child of John Smith (1765–1843), a minor manufacturer of Loudoun, Ayrshire, and Janet (1776–1853), daughter of James Thomson, owner of flax mills. Both families were connected to the prominent ...

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Smuts, Jan Christiaan (1870–1950), prime minister of South Africa, army officer, and writer on evolution, was born on 24 May 1870 at Bovenplaats, near Riebeeck West in the Malmesbury district of Cape Colony, the second child of Jacobus Abraham (Kosie) Smuts (1845–1914) and ...

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Spencer, Sir (Walter) Baldwin (1860–1929), biologist and anthropologist, was born on 23 June 1860 at Stretford, Lancashire, the second of eleven children of Reuben Spencer (1830–1901) and his wife, Martha (1832–1906), née Circuit. Reuben, a pillar of Manchester congregationalism, rose from clerk to managing director of ...

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Vaughan [married name Gourlay], Dame Janet Maria (1899–1993), haematologist and radiobiologist, was born on 18 October 1899 at 4 Albert Road, Clifton, Bristol, the eldest of the four children of William Wyamar Vaughan (1865–1938), schoolmaster, and his first wife, Margaret, née Symonds (1869–1925)...