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Arkwright, Sir John Stanhope (1872–1954), politician and hymn writer, was born at 11 Lowndes Street, London, on 10 July 1872, the only son (there were three daughters) of John Hungerford Arkwright (1833–1905), landowner and lord lieutenant of Herefordshire, of Hampton Court, Leominster, Herefordshire...

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Atterbury, Francis (1663–1732), bishop of Rochester, politician, and Jacobite conspirator, was born on 6 March 1663 at Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, the younger son of Lewis Atterbury (1630/31–1693) [see under Atterbury, Lewis (1656-1731)], then rector of Milton Keynes, and his wife, Elizabeth, ...

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Barbon [Barebone], Praisegod (c. 1598–1679/80), lay preacher and politician, first appears in 1623, when he was made free of the Company of Leathersellers in London; having served an eight- or nine-year apprenticeship, he was probably then aged about twenty-five. At an unknown date, but probably by 1632, ...

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Bradlaugh, Charles (1833–1891), politician and freethinker, was born on 26 September 1833 at home at 31 Bacchus Walk, Hoxton, London, the eldest of seven children born to Charles Bradlaugh, a solicitor's clerk, and his wife, Elizabeth Trimby, a former nursemaid. He was baptized at ...

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Brotherton, Joseph (1783–1857), Cowherdite Bible Christian minister and politician, was born on 22 May 1783 at Whittington, near Chesterfield, Derbyshire, the son of John Brotherton (d. 1809), and his wife, Mary. John Brotherton, a one-time schoolmaster and exciseman, moved his family to ...

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Drummond, Henry (1786–1860), politician and apostle of the Catholic Apostolic church, eldest son of Henry Drummond (1762–1794), banker, of The Grange, near Alresford, Hampshire, and his wife, Anne (d. 1852), daughter of Henry Dundas, first Viscount Melville, was born at Alresford on 5 December 1786. His father died in 1794, and when his mother remarried and went to ...

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Fox, William Johnson (1786–1864), preacher and politician, was born on 1 March 1786 at Uggeshall Farm, Wrentham, Suffolk, the eldest child of six sons and three daughters of Paul Fox (1753?–1812) and his wife, Mary. Paul Fox farmed a small property for his widowed mother, though he had prudently absented himself for a two-year stay in ...

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Henderson, Alexander (c. 1583–1646), Church of Scotland minister and politician, was born about 1583 in Criech, Fife, probably in or near the village of Luthrie, since he left 2000 merks to the village school in his will. He was possibly the son of ...

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Howard, Henry Granville Fitzalan-, fourteenth duke of Norfolk (1815–1860), Roman Catholic layman and politician, the eldest of the three sons of Henry Charles Howard, thirteenth duke (1791–1856), and his wife, Charlotte Leveson-Gower (1788–1870), eldest daughter of George Granville, first duke of Sutherland, was born ...

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Knightley, Sir Richard (1533–1615), politician and patron of puritans, was the eldest son of Sir Valentine Knightley of Fawsley, Northamptonshire, and his wife, Anne, the daughter of Edward Ferrers of Warwickshire. The family fortunes were based on sheep farming, for which the lands on their estates were enclosed, and on the death of his father in 1566 ...

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Lygon, Frederick, sixth Earl Beauchamp (1830–1891), Church of England layman and politician, was born on 10 November 1830, the third son of Henry, fourth Earl Beauchamp (1784–1863), and Lady Susan Caroline Eliot (1801–1835), daughter of William, second earl of St Germans.

The Lygon...

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Miall, Edward (1809–1881), politician, journalist, and Congregational minister, was born on 8 May 1809 at Portsmouth, one of several children of Moses Miall (d. 1829), a general merchant and later a schoolmaster, and his wife, Sarah, daughter of George Rolph. The family moved to ...

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Simmons, Charles James [Jim] (1893–1975), politician and evangelical preacher, was born at 30 Brighton Road, Moseley, Birmingham, on 9 April 1893, the eldest son of James Henry Simmons (1867–1941), journeyman and later master painter, and his wife, Mary Jane, née Russell (1872–1958), a schoolteacher. His parents were Primitive Methodists, temperance advocates, and Liberals. His maternal grandfather, ...

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Smith, William (1756–1835), politician and dissenter, was born on 22 September 1756 at Clapham, the only son of Samuel Smith (1727–1798) and his wife, Martha Adams (d. 1759). His father was a large wholesale grocer in Cannon Street, and his mother came from an old and wealthy ...

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Smyth, Richard (1826–1878), minister of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland and politician, the son of Hugh Smyth, a farmer, of Carncullogh, near Dervock, co. Antrim, and his wife, Sarah Anne Wray, was born at Carncullogh on 4 October 1826. As a child he suffered from rheumatic fever. He was educated locally and at the ...

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J. R. MacDonald

revised by H. C. G. Matthew

Wallace, Robert (1831–1899), Church of Scotland minister and politician, second son of Jasper Wallace, master gardener, was born at Kincaple near Cupar, Fife, on 24 June 1831. His mother claimed to be the illegitimate daughter of a peer, according to Wallace's autobiography. In his home he was taught a strict Calvinism. He was educated at the ...

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Wilberforce, William (1759–1833), politician, philanthropist, and slavery abolitionist, was born on 24 August 1759 at the Wilberforce house in High Street, Hull, the third child and only son of Robert Wilberforce (1728–1768), merchant, and his wife, Elizabeth (d. 1798), daughter of Thomas Bird...