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Abernethy, John (1764–1831), surgeon, born in Coleman Street, London, on 3 April 1764, was one of the five children of John Abernethy, a merchant, and his wife, Elizabeth Weir from Antrim in Ireland. Abernethy's early education took place at Wolverhampton grammar school, and at the age of fifteen he was apprenticed to ...

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Acheson, Sir (Ernest) Donald (1926–2010), medical officer, was born on 17 September 1926 at 74 Osborne Park, Belfast, the younger son of Malcolm King Acheson (d. 1962), a doctor who specialized in public health, and his wife, Dorothy Josephine, née Rennoldson (...

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Acland, Sir Henry Wentworth, first baronet (1815–1900), physician, was the fifth of the nine children and the fourth son of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, tenth baronet (1787–1871), and Lydia Elizabeth Hoare (d. 1856). Born at the family home of Killerton, at Broadclyst...

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Addison, Thomas (1795–1860), physician, was born in April 1795 at Long Benton, near Newcastle upon Tyne, the younger son of Joseph Addison (1756–1823), a grocer and flour dealer, and his wife, Sarah, née Shaw (1761–1841). Educated privately and at Newcastle grammar school, Addison...

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Adrian, Edgar Douglas, first Baron Adrian (1889–1977), physiologist, was born in London on 30 November 1889, the youngest of the three sons (there were no daughters) of Alfred Douglas Adrian, civil servant, and his wife, Flora Lavinia, daughter of Charles Howard Barton. His eldest brother lived for only a few days, while the other, ...

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Adrian, Richard Hume, second Baron Adrian (1927–1995), physiologist, was born on 16 October 1927 in Grange Road, Cambridge, the only son and youngest of the three children of Edgar Douglas Adrian, first Baron Adrian (1889–1977), physiologist, and his wife, Hester Agnes Adrian, daughter of ...

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Aikin, John (1747–1822), physician and writer, was born on 15 January 1747 at Kibworth Harcourt, Leicestershire, the younger child and only son of John Aikin (1713–1780), theologian, and his wife, Jane Jennings (1714–1785). He had an elder sister, who, under her married name of ...

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Akenside, Mark (1721–1770), poet and physician, was born on 9 November 1721 in Butcher Bank, St Nicholas, Newcastle upon Tyne, the sixth of seven children of Mark Akenside (b. 1676), butcher, and his wife, Mary (1685–1760), daughter of William Lumsden. He was baptized on 30 November in the nonconformist meeting-house which his parents attended in ...

Article

Robert Harrison

revised by Michael Bevan

Alderson, Sir James (1794–1882), physician, was born in Hull on 30 December 1794, the fourth son of Dr John Alderson and his wife, Sarah Isabella (née Scott; d. 1805), and was baptized in the Bowl Alley Presbyterian Church, Hull, on 18 April 1795. He received his early education at the school of the ...

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Alexander, Frederick Matthias (1869–1955), originator of the Alexander technique and teacher, was born on 20 January 1869 at Wynyard, north-west Tasmania, the eldest of seven children of John Alexander (1843–1936), farmer and blacksmith, and his wife, Betsy Brown (d. 1923), a nurse....

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Alison, William Pulteney (1790–1859), physician and social reformer, born at Boroughmuirhead near Edinburgh on 12 November 1790, was the son of Archibald Alison (1757–1839), who was in charge of the Episcopal congregation in Edinburgh as well as being a noted author, and his wife, ...

Article

H. D. Rolleston

revised by Alexander G. Bearn

Allbutt, Sir (Thomas) Clifford (1836–1925), physician, born at Dewsbury, Yorkshire, on 20 July 1836, was the only son of the Revd Thomas Allbutt, vicar of Dewsbury, and his wife, Marianne, daughter of Robert Wooler, of Dewsbury. Allbutt was sent to St Peter's School, York...

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Allinson, Thomas Richard (1858–1918), dietitian and businessman, was born at 43 Rumford Street, Hulme, Lancashire, on 29 March 1858, the son of Thomas Allinson, a bookkeeper, and his wife, Ellen (formerly Sims). He left school at fifteen and, aiming to be a doctor, he subsidized his studies by becoming a chemist's assistant. In 1879 he graduated LRCP (...

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Anderson, Elizabeth Garrett (1836–1917), physician, was born on 9 June 1836 at 1 Commercial Road, Whitechapel, London, the second of the nine children of Newson Garrett (1812–1893), grain merchant and maltster of Aldeburgh, Suffolk, and his wife, Louisa (1813–1903), daughter of John Dunnell...

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Anderson, James (1738–1809), surgeon and horticulturist, was born on 17 January 1738 at Long Hermiston near Edinburgh, the son of Andrew Anderson, a local doctor. He attended the village school at Ratho and studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh. He was a surgeon on an ...

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Anderson, Louisa Garrett (1873–1943), surgeon and suffragette, was born at the house of her paternal uncle, 9 Lyndhurst Road, Hampstead, London, on 28 July 1873, the eldest of the three children and the only surviving daughter of James George Skelton Anderson (1838–1907), shipowner, and his wife, the pioneering physician ...

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Andree, John (1697/8–1785), physician, was the co-founder of the London Hospital. Little is known of his origins except that he was probably descended from a Huguenot family named André, some of whom travelled to London from Geneva as refugees at the end of the sixteenth century. The paucity of documentation suggests that the family were of humble status. ...

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Andrewes, Sir Christopher Howard (1896–1988), virologist, was born on 7 June 1896 in London, the elder child and only son of Sir Frederick William Andrewes (1859–1932), pathologist, and his wife, Phyllis Mary, daughter of John Hamer, publisher. He was educated as a day boy at ...

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Arbuthnot [Arbuthnott], John (bap. 1667, d. 1735), physician and satirist, was baptized on 29 April 1667 at Arbuthnott, Kincardineshire, on the north-east Scottish coast, near Stonehaven, the eldest son of Alexander Arbuthnott (c.1636–1691), minister of Arbuthnott, and Margaret, daughter of John Lammie (or Lamy)...

Article

J. F. Payne

revised by Michael Bevan

Archer, John (fl. 1660–1688), medical practitioner, may have been Irish, as he speaks of having been in practice in Dublin in 1660. Nothing further is known about his origins. After leaving Ireland he lived in London, and was styled 'Chymical Physitian in Ordinary to the King' (1671); afterwards on his engraved portrait, he is called simply '[Medicus] in Ordinario Regi' (...