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Abel, Sir Frederick Augustus, first baronet (1827–1902), chemist and explosives expert, was born on 17 July 1827 at Woolwich, the eldest son of Johann Leopold Abel (1795–1871), a music master in Kennington, and his wife, Louisa (d. 1864), daughter of Martin Hopkins...

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Armstrong, Henry Edward (1848–1937), chemist and educational reformer, was born on 6 May 1848 at Caroline Place, Avenue Road, Lewisham, Kent, the eldest son of Richard Armstrong (1827–1884), a commission agent and importer, and his wife, Mary Ann Biddle. He was educated at ...

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Atwood [née South], Mary Anne (1817–1910), interpreter of alchemy, was born at Dieppe in 1817, the daughter of Thomas South (c.1785–1855), gentleman, of Bury House, Gosport, Hampshire, and his wife, Elise, née Maurice. She received no formal education but became proficient in Latin and Greek and developed a '...

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Beddoes, Thomas (1760–1808), chemist and physician, was born at Shifnal in Shropshire on 13 April 1760, the son of Ann Beddoes (née Whitehall), and her husband, Richard Beddoes (d. 1803), a tanner who was part of a prosperous and politically liberal commercial circle. ...

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Bird, Alfred (bap. 1811, d. 1878), chemist and food manufacturer, the fourth son of John Bird (1780–1846), astronomer and lecturer, and his wife, Mary, née Bland, was baptized at Nympsfield, Gloucestershire, on 25 August 1811. According to family tradition, he was the great-grandson of ...

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Bragg, Sir (William) Lawrence (1890–1971), physicist and crystallographer, was born on 31 March 1890 at 58/60 Lefevre Terrace, Adelaide, Australia, the elder son (the younger, Robert, was killed at Gallipoli in 1915) and eldest of the three children of Sir William Henry Bragg (1862–1942)...

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Brande, William Thomas (1788–1866), chemist, was born on 11 February 1788 at 10 Arlington Street, London, the youngest of the six children of Augustus Everard Brande (1746–1834), apothecary, and his wife, Ann, née Thomas (1753–1837). Brande was a scion of a wealthy family of apothecaries with appointments to the Hanoverian and ...

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Brotherton, Edward Allen, Baron Brotherton (1856–1930), chemical manufacturer and philanthropist, was born on 1 April 1856 at 2 Tiverton Place, Ardwick Green, Manchester, the eldest of three children of Theophilus Brotherton, a yarn agent, and his wife, Sarah, née O'Donnell. His relatives included the educational reformer ...

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Crookes, Sir William (1832–1919), chemist and science journalist, was born on 17 June 1832 at 143 Regent Street, London, the eldest son of the sixteen children of Joseph Crookes (1792–1884), a tailor from Yorkshire, and his second wife, Mary Scott of Aynhoe, Northamptonshire...

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Davy, Sir Humphry, baronet (1778–1829), chemist and inventor, was born on 17 December 1778 at 4 The Terrace, Market Jew Street, Penzance, Cornwall, the eldest of five children of Robert Davy, a woodcarver, and his wife, Grace Millett. His father was descended from a line of yeomen, or even gentlemen, but the only property he owned was a small farm at ...

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Dwight, John (1633x6–1703), chemist and potter, is presumed to have been born at Todenham in Gloucestershire, the second son of a yeoman farmer, George Dwight, and his wife, Joane Greenough (d. 1680), whose marriage took place at Bampton in Oxfordshire on 30 September 1630. By 4 March 1632 they were living at ...

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Emeléus, Harry Julius (1903–1993), inorganic chemist, was born on 22 June 1903 in Poplar, London, the second of three sons and the second of the five children of Karl Henry Emeléus (1869–1948), pharmacist, and his wife, Ellen, née Biggs (1873–1965), a secretary at the ...

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Frankland, Sir Edward (1825–1899), chemist, was born on 18 January 1825 at Churchtown, Garstang, Lancashire, the son of Margaret Frankland (1797–1881), daughter of John Frankland (1770–1811), calico printer, and his wife, Molly (née Dunderdale). Frankland's father, to whom his mother was not married, was ...

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Godfrey, Ambrose, the elder [known as Ambrose Godfrey Hanckwitz the elder] (1660–1741), chemist, was born Ambrosius Gottfried Hanckwitz in Nienburg, Germany, the second child of Christian Hanckwitz (1612–1665) and his second wife, Katherine (1627–1665). He emigrated to England with his younger brother ...

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H. B. Dixon

revised by Keith J. Laidler

Harcourt, Augustus George Vernon (1834–1919), chemist, was born in London on 24 December 1834, the elder son of Admiral Frederick E. Vernon Harcourt (1790–1883) and his wife, Marcia (d. 1868), sister of the first Lord Tollemache. His grandfather was Edward Harcourt (1757–1847)...

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Heydon, John (b. 1629, d. in or after 1670), writer on astrology and alchemy, and occultist, was born on 10 September 1629 in Green Arbour, London, the son of Francis Heydon of Sidmouth, Devon, and Mary Chandler of Worcestershire. He was the grandson of ...

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Hinshelwood, Sir Cyril Norman (1897–1967), physical chemist, was born on 19 June 1897 in London, the only child of Norman Macmillan Hinshelwood, chartered accountant, and his wife, Ethel Frances Smith (d. 1959). As a child he was taken by his parents to ...

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Hodgkin, Dorothy Mary Crowfoot (1910–1994), chemist and crystallographer, was born on 12 May 1910 in Guizeh, near Cairo, Egypt, the eldest of four daughters of John Winter Crowfoot (1873–1958) and his wife, Grace Mary (Molly) Hood (1877–1957). Her father was an inspector with the ...

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Hunt, Robert (1807–1887), chemist and photographer, was born at Plymouth Dock (Devonport) on 6 September 1807, the posthumous only child of Robert Hunt (bap. 1781, d. 1807), carpenter on the Moucheron, and his wife, Honour Thomas (1781–1842). Left to support herself and her infant son on a small naval pension, ...

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W. C. D. Dampier

revised by Frank A. J. L. James

Liveing, George Downing (1827–1924), chemist, was born on 21 December 1827 at Nayland, Suffolk, the eldest son of Edward Liveing, surgeon, and his wife, Catherine, the only daughter of George Downing, of Lincoln's Inn, barrister. He entered St John's College, Cambridge, in 1847, and graduated as eleventh wrangler in the 1850 mathematical tripos. The following year he read for the natural sciences tripos, the first year of its establishment, during which he studied line spectra under ...