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Arkwright, Sir Richard (1732–1792), inventor of cotton-spinning machinery and cotton manufacturer, was born on 23 December 1732 at Preston, Lancashire, the sixth of the seven children of Thomas Arkwright (1691–1753), a tailor, and his wife, Ellen Hodgkinson (1693–1778). The family was rooted in ...

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Bentham, Samuel (1757–1831), naval architect and inventor, was born in London on 11 January 1757, the youngest of the seven children of Jeremiah Bentham (1712–1792), an attorney, and his wife, Alicia Woodward Whitehorne (d. 1759), the eldest daughter of Thomas Grove, an ...

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Boys, Sir Charles Vernon (1855–1944), physicist and inventor, was born at the rectory, Wing, Uppingham, Rutland, on 15 March 1855, the eighth child of five sons and four daughters of the rector, Charles Boys, and his wife, Caroline Goodrich Dobbie.

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Cartwright, Edmund (1743–1823), Church of England clergyman and inventor of a power loom, was born on 24 April 1743 at Marnham in Nottinghamshire, the fourth of five sons of William Cartwright (d. 1781) and his wife, Anne (d. 1787), daughter of ...

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Davy, Sir Humphry, baronet (1778–1829), chemist and inventor, was born on 17 December 1778 at 4 The Terrace, Market Jew Street, Penzance, Cornwall, the eldest of five children of Robert Davy, a woodcarver, and his wife, Grace Millett. His father was descended from a line of yeomen, or even gentlemen, but the only property he owned was a small farm at ...

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Hasler, Herbert George (1914–1987), inventor of sailing equipment and Royal Marines officer, was born in Dublin on 27 February 1914, the younger child and younger son of Lieutenant Arthur Thomas Hasler, quartermaster, of the Royal Army Medical Corps, and his wife, Annie Georgina Andrews...

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Kay, John (1704–1780/81), inventor of textile manufacturing machinery, was born at Park Farm in the township of Walmersley in the parish of Bury, Lancashire, on 16 July 1704, the fifth son of Robert Kay (1651–1704) and his wife, Ellen, née Entwistle, of Quarlton...

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Knight, Gowin (bap. 1713, d. 1772), physician and inventor of geomagnetic instruments, was baptized at Corringham, Lincolnshire, on 10 September 1713, the son of the local vicar Robert Knight and his wife, Elizabeth. In 1724 the family moved to Leeds, where Knight was educated at the grammar school. In 1731 and 1735 he won scholarships to ...

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Moule, Henry (1801–1880), Church of England clergyman and inventor of the dry earth closet, was born at Melksham, Wiltshire, on 27 January 1801, the sixth son of George Moule (1768–1830), solicitor and banker, and his wife, Sarah Hayward (1764–1835). He was educated at ...

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Scott, Henry Young Darracott (1822–1883), inventor of selenitic cement and military engineer, second son of Edward Scott, a quarry owner, was born at Plymouth, Devon, on 2 January 1822. He was educated privately and entered the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, in 1838. Commissioned as second lieutenant in 1840, early the next year ...

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Shrapnel, Henry (1761–1842), army officer and inventor of the Shrapnel shell, was born on 3 June 1761, the youngest son of the nine children of Zachariah Shrapnel (1724–1796) from Midway Manor House, Bradford-on-Avon, Wiltshire, and his wife, Lydia (née Needham). The family name appears as ...

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Stanhope, Charles, third Earl Stanhope (1753–1816), politician and inventor, was born in London on 3 August 1753. He was the second, but only surviving, son of Philip Stanhope, second Earl Stanhope (1714–1786), and his wife, Grizel Hamilton (1719–1811). His father, the son of the general and whig politician ...