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Bennett, Sir John (1814–1897), watchmaker and politician, was born on 15 October 1814, the son of John Bennett (d. 1829/30) of Stockwell Street, Greenwich, watchmaker, and his wife, Elizabeth Sinnock Bennett, and the elder brother of George Weedon Bennett and William Cox Bennett...

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Fawcett, Philippa Garrett (1868–1948), mathematician and civil servant, was born in London on 4 April 1868, the only daughter of Henry Fawcett (1833–1884), Liberal politician and professor of political economy at Cambridge, and his wife, Millicent Garrett Fawcett (1847–1929), leader of the women's suffragist movement. ...

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Giffard, John Anthony Hardinge [Tony], third earl of Halsbury (1908–2000), scientist and public servant, was born on 4 June 1908 at Ennismore Gardens, London. He was the only son and elder child of Hardinge Goulborn Giffard, second earl of Halsbury (1880–1943), barrister and recorder of ...

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Gunn, Ronald Campbell (1808–1881), naturalist and colonial official, was born in Cape Town on 4 April 1808, the son of an army officer, William Gunn (d. 1826), and his wife, Margaret, née Wilson (d. 1812). After a period spent as a child on ...

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Hill, Sir Rowland (1795–1879), postal reformer and civil servant, was born on 3 December 1795 at 96 Blackwell Street, Kidderminster, third of the eight children of Thomas Wright Hill (1763–1851), schoolmaster, and his wife, Sarah Lea (1765–1842).

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Hume, Allan Octavian (1829–1912), administrator in India, founder of the Indian National Congress, and ornithologist, was born on 4 June 1829 at St Mary Cray, Kent, seventh child of Joseph Hume MP (1777–1855) and his wife, Maria Burnley (b. 1786). He grew up in the radical family environment of ...

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Lubbock, John, first Baron Avebury (1834–1913), banker, politician, and scientific writer, was born on 30 April 1834 at 29 Eaton Place, London, the eldest of eleven children of Sir John William Lubbock, third baronet (1803–1865), and his wife, Harriet Hotham (d. 1873)...

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Marshall, Walter Charles, Baron Marshall of Goring (1932–1996), physicist and public servant, was born on 5 March 1932 at 15 Tymawr Road, Rumney, Newport, Monmouthshire, the last of three children of Frank Marshall (d. 1939), a baker, and his wife, Amy, née...

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McNaughton, Andrew George Latta (1887–1966), army officer, scientist, and public servant, was born at Moosomin, Saskatchewan, Canada, on 25 February 1887, the elder son of Robert Duncan McNaughton of Moosomin, a prosperous storekeeper of Scottish highland descent, and his wife, Christina Mary Ann...

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Morland, Sir Samuel, first baronet (1625–1695), natural philosopher and diplomat, was born in Sulhampstead-Banister, Berkshire, the son of the Revd Thomas Morland (b. 1574/5), the rector, who came from Westmorland; he had two brothers, Thomas and Martin. From 1638 he was educated at ...

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Petty, Sir William (1623–1687), natural philosopher and administrator in Ireland, was born at Romsey, Hampshire, on 26 May 1623, the third child of Anthony Petty (1587–1654), clothier, and his wife, Francesca (d. 1663). In later life Petty was keen to stress the obscurity of his origins in order to exaggerate his spectacular success....

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Preece, Sir William Henry (1834–1913), electrical engineer and administrator, was born on 15 February 1834 at Bryn Helen near Caernarfon, Wales, the eldest son of Richard Matthias Preece (1797–1854), stockbroker and politician, and his wife, Jane (1799–1870), daughter of John Hughes of Caernarfon...

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Rickman, John (1771–1840), statistician and civil servant, was born on 22 August 1771, the only son of Thomas Rickman, vicar of Newburn, Northumberland. He was educated at Guildford grammar school (1781–5), matriculated from Magdalen Hall, Oxford, in 1788, migrated to Lincoln College, and graduated BA in 1792. ...

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Scrope, George Julius Poulett [formerly George Julius Thomson] (1797–1876), geologist and political economist, was born in London on 10 March 1797. Baptized George Julius Thomson at St Peter-le-Poer in the City of London on 11 May 1797, he was the second son of the ...

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Shakespear [née Wood], Dame Ethel Mary Reader (1871–1946), public servant and geologist, was born on 17 July 1871 at Biddenham, near Bedford, the daughter of the Revd Henry Wood (c.1829–1912). After attending Bedford high school, she entered Newnham College, Cambridge...

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Smyth [formerly Smith], Robert Brough (1830–1889), civil servant and mining engineer, was born on 18 February 1830 at Carville, near Wallsend, Northumberland, the son of Edward Smith, coal viewer (or mining engineer), and his wife, Elizabeth, née Brough. He was baptized at ...

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Stanhope, Charles, third Earl Stanhope (1753–1816), politician and inventor, was born in London on 3 August 1753. He was the second, but only surviving, son of Philip Stanhope, second Earl Stanhope (1714–1786), and his wife, Grizel Hamilton (1719–1811). His father, the son of the general and whig politician ...

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Stanley, Edward Smith, thirteenth earl of Derby [formerly Lord Stanley] (1775–1851), politician and naturalist, the son of Edward Stanley, twelfth earl of Derby (1752–1834), and his first wife, Lady Elizabeth Hamilton (1753–1797), only daughter of James, sixth duke of Hamilton, was born in ...