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Bentham, Jeremy (1748–1832), philosopher, jurist, and reformer, was born on 4 February 1748 in Church Lane, Houndsditch, London, the eldest of the seven children of Jeremiah Bentham (1712–1792), attorney, and Alicia Woodward Whitehorne (d. 1759), the eldest daughter of Thomas Grove, a mercer of ...

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Cartwright, John (1740–1824), political reformer, was born on 17 September 1740 at Marnham, Nottinghamshire, the third son of William Cartwright (d. 1781) of Marnham, and Anne (d. 1787), daughter of George Cartwright of Ossington, also in Nottinghamshire. The family had risen to prominence in the sixteenth century owing to the fortuitous marriage of ...

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Fitzgerald, William Robert, second duke of Leinster (1749–1804), landowner and political reformer, was born on 12 March 1749 at Arlington Place, Piccadilly, London, the second of nineteen children of James Fitzgerald, first duke of Leinster (1722–1773), politician, and his wife, Lady Emily Mary Lennox (1731–1814)...

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W. P. Courtney

revised by Matthew Lee

Hare, Thomas (1806–1891), political reformer, born on 28 March 1806, was the illegitimate son of Anne Hare (d. 1853) of Leigh, Dorset; Hare later recorded his father as being Thomas King, a farmer (m. cert.). On 14 November 1828 he was admitted as a student of the ...

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Jebb, John (1736–1786), religious and political reformer, was born on 16 February 1736 at Southampton Street, Covent Garden, London, the eldest son of Dr John Jebb (d. 1787), dean of Cashell, Ireland, and Ann, daughter of Daniel Gansel of Donyland Hall, near ...

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Thelwall, John (1764–1834), political reformer and lecturer, was born on 27 July 1764 at Chandos Street, Covent Garden, the son of Joseph Thelwall (1731–1772), a silk mercer. He was a sickly child, suffering from asthma and a tendency to stammer. After his father's death his mother continued the silk business, and in 1777 ...

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Wyvill, Christopher (1738–1822), political reformer, was born in Edinburgh in December 1738, the son of Edward Wyvill (1709–1791), general supervisor of the excise in Edinburgh, and Christian Catherine (1721–1740), daughter of William Clifton, solicitor to the Scottish board of excise. The Wyvill family could trace its descent from ...