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Abbot, Charles, first Baron Colchester (1757–1829), speaker of the House of Commons, was born on 14 October 1757 at Abingdon, Berkshire, the son of the Revd John Abbot (d. 1760), a fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, and rector of All Saints, Colchester...

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Acland, Sir Arthur Herbert Dyke, thirteenth baronet (1847–1926), politician and educational reformer, was born at Holnicote, near Porlock, Somerset, on 13 October 1847, the third son of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, eleventh baronet (1809–1898), and his first wife, Mary (d. 1851), daughter of ...

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Acland, Sir Richard Thomas Dyke, fifteenth baronet (1906–1990), politician and benefactor, was born on 26 November 1906 at Broadclyst, Devon, his ancestral home, the eldest in the family of three sons and one daughter of Sir Francis Dyke Acland, fourteenth baronet (1874–1939), landowner and liberal politician, and his wife, ...

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Acland, Sir Thomas Dyke, eleventh baronet (1809–1898), politician and educational reformer, born at Killerton, Devon, on 25 May 1809, was the eldest son of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland (1787–1871), politician and philanthropist, and his wife, Lydia Elizabeth (d. 1856), only daughter of ...

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W. P. Courtney

revised by H. C. G. Matthew

Adair, Sir Robert (1763–1855), politician and diplomatist, was the son of Robert Adair, sergeant-surgeon to George III, and Lady Caroline Keppel. He was born on 24 May 1763, and was sent to Westminster School in 1773, and thence to the University of Göttingen...

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J. E. G. de Montmorency

revised by H. C. G. Matthew

Adderley, Charles Bowyer, first Baron Norton (1814–1905), politician, born at Knighton House, Leicestershire, on 2 August 1814, was the eldest son of Charles Clement Adderley (1780–1818) and his wife, Anna Maria (d. 1827), daughter of Sir Edmund Burney Cradock-Hartopp, first baronet, a descendant of ...

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Addington, Henry, first Viscount Sidmouth (1757–1844), prime minister, was born on 30 May 1757, the fourth child and eldest son of Anthony Addington (1713–1790), physician, and his wife, Mary (d. 1778), daughter and heir of the Revd Haviland John Hiley, headmaster of ...

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Addison, Joseph (1672–1719), writer and politician, was born on 1 May 1672 at the rectory, Milston, a hamlet north of Amesbury in Wiltshire, the son of Lancelot Addison (1632–1703) and his wife, Jane, née Gulston (c.1635?–1684). His father was at that time vicar of ...

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Alexander, Albert Victor, Earl Alexander of Hillsborough (1885–1965), politician and co-operator, was born at 59 George Street, Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, on 1 May 1885, the son of Albert Alexander (d. 1886), a blacksmith, and his wife, Eliza Jane, née Thatcher. On his father's death his mother moved back to her parents' house in ...

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Alexander, Du Pre, second earl of Caledon (1777–1839), politician and colonial administrator, was born on 14 December 1777, the only son of James Alexander (1730–1802), first earl of Caledon, of Caledon Castle, co. Tyrone, and his wife, Anne (d. 1777), daughter of ...

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Alexander, William, first earl of Stirling (1577–1640), poet and politician, was born probably at Menstrie Castle in Clackmannanshire, the only son (there were four daughters) of Alexander Alexander (d. 1581) and Marion, daughter of Gilbert Graham of Gartavertane. His descent has been traced from the lords of the ...

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Allen, (Reginald) Clifford, Baron Allen of Hurtwood (1889–1939), politician and peace campaigner, was born at St Olave's, Slow Park, Newport, Monmouthshire, on 9 May 1889. As an adult he was always known as Clifford Allen, or by close friends as CA. He had a brother, ...

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Alport, Cuthbert James McCall [Cub], Baron Alport (1912–1998), politician, was born on 22 March 1912 at Turffontein, near Johannesburg, South Africa, the only surviving child of (Arthur) Cecil Alport (1880–1959), doctor and later professor of medicine, and his wife, Janet (d. 1976)...

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Anson, George, Baron Anson (1697–1762), naval officer and politician, was born on 23 April 1697 at Colwich, Staffordshire, the second son of William Anson (d. 1720) and his wife, Isabella, daughter and coheir of Charles Carrier of Wirksworth, Derbyshire. As the younger son of a minor country gentleman, ...

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Anson, Sir William Reynell, third baronet (1843–1914), politician and college head, was born at Walberton, Sussex, on 14 November 1843, the eldest son of Sir John William Hamilton Anson, second baronet (1816–1873), and his wife, Elizabeth Catherine (d. 1903), daughter of Major-General Sir Denis Pack...

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Arbuthnot, Charles (1767–1850), diplomatist and politician, was born on 14 March 1767, the third son of John Arbuthnot (1729–1797), merchant, of Ravensbury near Mitcham, Surrey, and his third wife, Anne (d. 1782), daughter of Richard Stone, a London banker. The father's enterprise failed early in his son's life but in 1782 he was appointed inspector-general of the ...

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Arch, Joseph (1826–1919), trade unionist and politician, was born at Barford, Warwickshire, on 10 November 1826, the son of John Arch (b. c.1793), a shepherd, and Hannah Pace (c.1783–1845). Before her marriage his mother worked as a domestic servant in ...

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Ashley, (Anthony) Evelyn Melbourne (1836–1907), politician and biographer, born in London on 24 July 1836, was the fourth son of Anthony Ashley Cooper, seventh earl of Shaftesbury (1801–1885), politician and social reformer, and his wife, Emily (1810–1872), daughter of Peter Leopold Cowper, fifth Earl Cowper...

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Astor [née Langhorne], Nancy Witcher, Viscountess Astor (1879–1964), society hostess and politician, was born at Danville, Virginia, on 19 May 1879, the eighth child in a family of eleven. Her father, Chiswell Dabney Langhorne (1843–1919), a veteran of the American Civil War, had made his fortune in railway construction and bought an estate at ...

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Atterbury, Francis (1663–1732), bishop of Rochester, politician, and Jacobite conspirator, was born on 6 March 1663 at Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, the younger son of Lewis Atterbury (1630/31–1693) [see under Atterbury, Lewis (1656-1731)], then rector of Milton Keynes, and his wife, Elizabeth, ...