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Archer, Frederick Scott (1813–1857), inventor of the collodion process in photography, was the second son of Thomas Archer, a butcher at Hertford, where he was probably born. Orphaned as a child, he was brought up by distant relatives and friends and while still a young man was apprenticed to a silversmith and bullion dealer named ...

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Atkins [née Children], Anna (1799–1871), botanist and photographic artist, was born on 16 March 1799 in Tonbridge, Kent, the only child of John George Children (1777–1852), scientist, and his wife, Hester Anne Holwell (d. 1800). Some aspects of her early life are suggested in her pseudo-anonymous biography of her father, but otherwise little is known. ...

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Bauer, Franz Andreas (1758–1840), microscopist and botanical artist, was born on 4 October 1758 in Feldsberg, Austria (now Valtice, Czech Republic). He was the second of the four sons of Lukas Bauer or Baur (1706/7–1762), a religious and court painter to the ...

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Beckett, Edmund [formerly Edmund Beckett Denison], first Baron Grimthorpe (1816–1905), ecclesiastical controversialist, architect, and horologist, was born at Carlton Hall, near Newark, on 12 May 1816, the eldest son of Sir Edmund Beckett, fourth baronet (1787–1874), later MP for the West Riding...

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Bentinck, Margaret Cavendish [née Lady Margaret Cavendish Harley], duchess of Portland (1715–1785), collector of art and natural history specimens and patron of arts and sciences, was born on 11 February 1715 in London, the only surviving child of Edward Harley, later second earl of Oxford...

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Brierly, Sir Oswald Walters (1817–1894), marine painter and naval engineer, was born at Chester on 19 May 1817, the son of Dr Thomas Brierly (d. in or before 1872), a physician and amateur artist. After schooling in Chester, he became a pupil at ...

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Brighton, Albert George [Peter] (1900–1988), palaeontologist and curator, was born on 29 December 1900 at 13 Conyers Road, Streatham, London, the son of George Freeston Brighton, gardener, and his wife, Susan Alice Jayne. He was educated at St Leonard's School, Streatham, and Westminster City School...

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Cavendish, William, first duke of Newcastle upon Tyne (bap. 1593, d. 1676), writer, patron, and royalist army officer, was born at Handsworth Manor, Yorkshire, and was baptized in the parish on 16 December 1593. He was the second of three children, the first having died in infancy, of ...

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Claudet, Antoine François Jean (1797–1867), photographer and inventor, was born at Château de Rosay, Lyons, France, on 12 August 1797, the son of a gentleman of independent means, who died in 1807. After receiving a sound commercial and classical education, he entered the prestigious banking firm of his uncle and was soon installed as co-director with ...

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Compton, Spencer Joshua Alwyne, second marquess of Northampton (1790–1851), patron of science and the arts, was born on 2 January 1790 at Erlestoke Park, Wiltshire, the second son of Charles Compton, ninth earl and first marquess of Northampton, and Mary, only daughter of ...

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Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge [pseud. Lewis Carroll] (1832–1898), author, mathematician, and photographer, was born at Daresbury parsonage, Cheshire, on 27 January 1832, the eldest son and third of eleven children of Charles Dodgson (1800–1868), curate of the parish, later rector of Croft-on-Tees, Yorkshire...

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Duncan, John (1794–1881), hand-loom weaver and botanist, was born on 19 December 1794 at Stonehaven, Kincardineshire, the illegitimate son of John Duncan, weaver and soldier, from Drumlithie, and Ann Caird (c.1773–c.1830), also of Drumlithie, who decided to support herself and her child by weaving stockings and harvesting at nearby ...

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Dwight, John (1633x6–1703), chemist and potter, is presumed to have been born at Todenham in Gloucestershire, the second son of a yeoman farmer, George Dwight, and his wife, Joane Greenough (d. 1680), whose marriage took place at Bampton in Oxfordshire on 30 September 1630. By 4 March 1632 they were living at ...

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Edwards, George (1694–1773), ornithologist and artist, was born on 3 April 1694 at Stratford, West Ham, Essex, to a family of Welsh descent. He was educated at a boarding-school in Leytonstone and at Brentwood grammar school. He was then apprenticed to John Dod...

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Fitch, Walter Hood (1817–1892), botanical artist and lithographer, was born on 29 January 1817 in Lanark, Scotland, the second son of five children of John Fitch (1790–c.1850), cloth merchant, and his wife, Catherine Maria Hood (1786–1859), a milliner and dressmaker. After a year at ...

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Flower, Sir William Henry (1831–1899), zoologist and museum curator, was born on 30 November 1831 in Stratford upon Avon, the second son of Edward Fordham Flower (1805–1883) and his wife, Selina Greaves (d. 1884). His father, a businessman, established Flowers brewery. His elder brother, ...

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Fraser, Francis Charles (1903–1978), zoologist and museum administrator, was born on 16 June 1903 at Glenturret, Station Road, Dingwall, Ross-shire, Scotland. He was the youngest of the six sons (there were also four daughters) of James Fraser (d. 1910/11), master saddler and blacksmith, and his wife, ...

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Geddes, Sir Patrick (1854–1932), social evolutionist and city planner, was born at Ballater, west Aberdeenshire, Scotland, on 2 October 1854, the youngest son of Alexander Geddes (1808–1899), and his wife, Janet Stivenson. His father was a quartermaster in the Black Watch; his mother came from a family of strict Presbyterian covenanters....

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Gordon, Seton Paul (1886–1977), naturalist and photographer, was born at 26 Rubislaw Terrace, Aberdeen, on 11 April 1886, the only child of William Gordon (1839–1924), advocate and town clerk of Aberdeen, and his wife, Ella Mary, daughter of the horticulturist William Paul of ...

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Gray, Edward Whitaker (1748–1806), physician and museum curator, was born on 21 March 1748, probably in London, the second son of Samuel Gray (bap. 1693?, d. 1766), seedsman, and his wife, Juliana, née Kelly (d. 1774). An older brother, Samuel Gray (1739–1771)...