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Adrian, Edgar Douglas, first Baron Adrian (1889–1977), physiologist, was born in London on 30 November 1889, the youngest of the three sons (there were no daughters) of Alfred Douglas Adrian, civil servant, and his wife, Flora Lavinia, daughter of Charles Howard Barton. His eldest brother lived for only a few days, while the other, ...

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Adrian, Richard Hume, second Baron Adrian (1927–1995), physiologist, was born on 16 October 1927 in Grange Road, Cambridge, the only son and youngest of the three children of Edgar Douglas Adrian, first Baron Adrian (1889–1977), physiologist, and his wife, Hester Agnes Adrian, daughter of ...

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Baillie, Matthew (1761–1823), morbid anatomist and physician, was born on 27 October 1761 at Shotts manse, Lanarkshire, the second but only surviving son of James Baillie (c.1722–1778) and his wife, Dorothea (c.1721–1806). They had an elder daughter, and also one younger, ...

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Barclay, John (1758–1826), anatomist, was born at Muthill, Perthshire, on 1 December 1758, the son of Lodowick Barclay, a farmer, and Margaret McIlwhannel. John Barclay (1733–1798), founder of the Berean confession in Edinburgh, was his uncle. In 1776 Barclay obtained a bursary in ...

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Barcroft, Sir Joseph (1872–1947), physiologist, was born on 26 July 1872 at The Glen, Newry, co. Down, Ireland, the second of the five children of Henry Barcroft (d. 1905), linen merchant and inventor, and his wife, Anna Richardson Malcolmson (1840–1924), daughter of ...

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Barker, Sir Herbert Atkinson (1869–1950), bone-setter, was born at Southport on 21 April 1869, the only son of Thomas Wildman Barker, solicitor, who became coroner for south-west Lancashire, and his wife, Agnes Atkinson; both parents died while Barker was a schoolboy. After leaving the grammar school at ...

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Bell, Sir Charles (1774–1842), physiologist and surgeon, the youngest of the six children of William Bell (1704–1779), an Episcopal clergyman, and his wife, Margaret Morrice, the daughter of a clergyman, was born in November 1774 at Fountainbridge, at that time a suburb of ...

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Bowman, Sir William, first baronet (1816–1892), ophthalmic surgeon and anatomist, was born at Sweetbriar Hall, Hospital Street, Nantwich, Cheshire, on 20 July 1816, the third of the four sons (there was one daughter) of John Eddowes Bowman the elder (1785–1841), a banker as well as botanist and fellow of the ...

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Brodie, Sir Benjamin Collins, first baronet (1783–1862), physiologist and surgeon, was born on 8 June 1783 at Winterslow, Wiltshire, the fourth child and third son of Peter Bellinger Brodie (1742–1804), rector of the parish, and his wife, Sarah (1755–1847), daughter of Benjamin Collins...

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Brookes, Joshua (1761–1833), anatomist, was born on 24 November 1761. Little is known of his early life. He studied anatomy and surgery in London under William Hunter, William Hewson, Andrew Marshall, and John Sheldon, and for a time attended the practice of Portal...

Article

W. D. M. Paton

revised by E. M. Tansey

Brown, Sir (George) Lindor (1903–1971), physiologist, was born in Liverpool on 9 February 1903, the only son and younger child of George William Arthur Brown, schoolmaster in Warrington, and his wife, Helen Wharram, of Yorkshire. He attended first his father's school and then the ...

Article

Gordon Goodwin

revised by Michael Bevan

Buissière [Bussière], Paul (d. 1739), surgeon and anatomist, was a native of France, and a protestant who had left his country on account of his religion. Before leaving France he had practised with distinction in the principality of Orange. He settled in the first instance at ...

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Bülbring, Edith (1903–1990), pharmacologist and physiologist, was born on 27 December 1903 in Bonn, Germany, the youngest of four children and third daughter of Karl Daniel Bülbring, professor of English at Bonn University, and his wife, Hortense Leonore Kann, a Dutch woman, daughter of a Jewish banker's family in ...

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Chambers, Helen (1879–1935), pathologist and cancer research worker, was born on 18 July 1879 in Bombay, India, the only daughter of Frederick Chambers, of the Indian Civil Service. Her family returned to Britain and she was educated at the Jersey Ladies' College, and later at ...

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Cheselden, William (1688–1752), surgeon and anatomist, born on 19 October 1688 in a dwelling, now Cheseldyne House, at Burrough on the Hill, Somerby, Leicestershire, was the third child and second son of George Cheselden, landowner and farmer, and his wife, Deborah, daughter of ...

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Clarke, Sir Cyril Astley (1907–2000), physician and medical scientist, was born on 22 August 1907 at 37 London Road, Leicester, the only son and second of the three children of Astley Vavasour Clarke (1870–1945), physician, and his wife, Ethel Mary (1872–1966), daughter of ...

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Combe [Comb], George (1788–1858), phrenologist, was born in Livingstone Yards, Edinburgh, on 21 October 1788, one of the seventeen children of George Comb (d. 1815), a brewer, and Marion Newton (d. 1819), who came from a family of tenant farmers. Combe...

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Copeman, Sydney Arthur Monckton (1862–1947), medical scientist, was born at home on 21 February 1862 in the cathedral close at Norwich, the son of Arthur Charles Copeman (1824–1896), canon and rural dean of Norwich, and his wife, Mary Metcalfe (1834–1927), daughter of deputy lieutenant ...

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Cowper [Cooper], William (1666/7–1710), surgeon and anatomist, was the youngest son of Richard Cowper of Petersfield, Hampshire. He was apprenticed in London first to the surgeon William Bignall on 4 April 1681 and afterwards to John Fletcher. Cowper was admitted a freeman of the ...

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G. T. Bettany

revised by Michael Bevan

Cruikshank, William Cumberland (1745–1800), anatomist, was born in Edinburgh, the son of George Cruikshank, an excise officer. He was educated at Edinburgh and Glasgow universities, and graduated MA at the latter in 1767. Besides taking the divinity course he studied French and Italian to a level at which he was able to teach fellow students, and become a tutor for several notable families. The acquaintance of two medical men, ...