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Bohn, Henry George (1796–1884), translator and publisher, was born on 4 January 1796 and baptized in London on 7 February, the first of four sons of John Henry Martin Bohn (c.1757–1843), of Münster, Westphalia, Germany, and Elizabeth Watt, niece of James Watt...

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Bourchier, John, second Baron Berners (c. 1467–1533), soldier, diplomat, and translator, was the son of Sir Humphrey Bourchier (d. 1471) and Elizabeth (d. 1497), daughter and sole heir of Frederick Tilney of Boston, Lincolnshire. His father, a Yorkist, was killed at the battle of ...

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Broome, William (bap. 1689, d. 1745), translator and poet, was born at Haslington, Cheshire, and baptized there on 3 May 1689, the son of Randle Broome, a farmer. He was first educated at Eton College, where he was captain of the school until he was eventually sent to ...

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Carey, Henry, second earl of Monmouth (1596–1661), translator, eldest son of Robert Carey, first earl of Monmouth (1560–1639), and his wife, Elizabeth (d. 1641), daughter of Sir Hugh Trevannion and widow of Sir Henry Widdrington of Swynburne Magna, was born at Denham, Buckinghamshire...

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Carter, Elizabeth (1717–1806), poet, translator, and writer, was born on 16 December 1717 at Deal in Kent, the first child and eldest daughter of the Revd Nicolas Carter (1688–1774), perpetual curate of Deal Chapel, and one of the six preachers at Canterbury Cathedral...

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Cary [née Tanfield], Elizabeth, Viscountess Falkland (1585–1639), writer and translator, was born at Burford Priory, Oxfordshire, the only child of Lawrence Tanfield (c. 1551–1625), lawyer, and his wife, Elizabeth (d. 1629), daughter of Giles Symonds and Catherine, née Lee. Much of what is known of her derives from a manuscript life written about 1650 by one of her daughters, ...

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Cotton, Charles (1630–1687), poet and translator, was born at the family seat, Beresford Hall in Staffordshire, on 28 April 1630, the only child of Charles (d. 1658) and Olive, née Stanhope (1614?–1652?). His parents' marriage had caused a scandal when his father eloped with the young heiress and the marriage continued stormy, if one may judge by ...

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Creech, Thomas (1659–1700), translator and classical scholar, was born in Blandford, Dorset, the only son of Thomas Creech (d. 1720) and his wife, Jane (d. 1693). Creech, who had one sister, Bridget, was educated at the free grammar school in nearby ...

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Dutt, Toru (1856–1877), Indian poet, translator, and novelist, was born at 12 Maniktollah Street, Rambagan, Calcutta, India, on 4 March 1856, the youngest daughter in the family of three children of Govin Chunder Dutt and his wife, Kshetramoni, née Mitter. Apart from a year (...

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D. N. Smith

revised by Rebecca Mills

Elton, Oliver (1861–1945), literary scholar and translator, was born on 3 June 1861 at Gresham grammar school, Holt, Norfolk, the only child of the Revd Charles Allen Elton (1820–1887), headmaster of the school, and his wife, Sarah Amelia (b. 1833), daughter of ...

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Fanshawe, Sir Richard, first baronet (1608–1666), diplomat and translator, was born in June 1608 at Ware Park, Hertfordshire, and baptized on 12 June, the youngest son of Sir Henry Fanshawe (1569–1616), exchequer official, and his wife, Elizabeth Smythe (1577?–1631). The household into which he was born was on a scale appropriate to a senior royal servant who could trace gentry status back to the medieval ...

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FitzGerald [formerly Purcell], Edward (1809–1883), writer and translator, was born on 31 March 1809 at the White House (later known as Bredfield House), between Bredfield village and the town of Woodbridge in Suffolk, the seventh of eight children and the youngest of three sons of ...

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Garnett [née Black], Constance Clara (1861–1946), translator, was born at 58 Ship Street, Brighton, Sussex, on 19 December 1861, sixth of the eight children of the solicitor David Black (1817–1892), afterwards town clerk and coroner, and his wife, Clara Maria (1825–1875), daughter of the portrait painter ...

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Goldsmith, Francis (1613–1655), translator, was born on 25 March 1613, the second child and first son of the five children of Francis Goldsmith (c.1580–1634), of St Giles-in-the-Fields, Middlesex, and his wife, Catherine Oundley (b. c.1584). His grandfather was Sir Francis Goldsmith...

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Graves, Richard (1715–1804), writer and translator, was born at Mickleton Manor, Mickleton, Gloucestershire, on 4 May 1715, the second son of Richard Graves (1677–1729), antiquary, and his wife, Elizabeth Morgan (d. 1723), a Welshwoman, daughter of Thomas Morgan. Educated at the school run by the local curate, ...

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Haak, Theodore (1605–1690), translator and natural philosopher, was born on 25 July 1605 at Neuhausen, near Worms, where his father, Theodor Haak, held some administrative office; his mother, Maria, was the daughter of Daniel Tossanus, a Huguenot refugee who had become rector of the ...

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Hayward, Abraham (1801–1884), essayist and translator, was born on 22 November 1801 in Wilton, near Salisbury, the eldest son of Joseph Hayward (d. 1844), landed gentleman and writer on agriculture and horticulture, and Mary, daughter of Richard Abraham of White Lackington, Somerset...

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Heaney, Seamus Justin (1939–2013), poet, translator, and literary critic, was born at Mossbawn Farm, near Castledawson, co. Derry, Northern Ireland, on 13 April 1939, the oldest of nine children of Patrick Heaney (1910–1986), farmer, and his wife, Margaret Kathleen, née McCann (1911–1984). He was educated at ...

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Hoby, Sir Thomas (1530–1566), courtier and translator, was born at Leominster, Herefordshire, the second son of William Hoby, of Radnor, and his second wife, Katherine, daughter of John Forden. He matriculated pensioner from St John's College, Cambridge, on 20 May 1545 and studied for the next two years under ...

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Holland, Philemon (1552–1637), translator, was born in 1552, probably on 6 November, in Chelmsford, Essex, the son of John Holland (d. 1578), clergyman. He was a member of the same Norfolk family as Sir John Holland, first baronet (1603–1701); this family claimed to be related to the rather grander ...