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Butler, Joseph (1692–1752), moral philosopher and theologian, was born on 18 May 1692 in Wantage, Berkshire. He was the youngest among the eight children of Thomas Butler (d. 1731), variously described as a prominent cloth merchant or linen draper in the town and as 'gentleman' in the records of ...

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Copleston, Edward (1776–1849), bishop of Llandaff and moral philosopher, was born on 2 February 1776 at Offwell in Devon, where his father, John Bradford Copleston, was rector. He was educated at home until the age of fifteen when, in 1791, he won a scholarship to ...

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Dummett, Sir Michael Anthony Eardley (1925–2011), philosopher and campaigner against racial injustice, was born Michael Eardley Dummett at 56 York Terrace, Marylebone, London on 27 June 1925, the only child of George Herbert Dummett (1880–1970), a silk merchant also later dealing in rayon, and his wife ...

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Hare, Richard Mervyn (1919–2002), philosopher, was born on 21 March 1919 at Backwell Down, Backwell, Somerset (six miles to the west of Bristol), the fifth surviving child of Charles Francis Aubone (John) Hare, businessman, and his wife, Louise Kathleen, née Simonds...

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Hutcheson, Francis (1694–1746), moral philosopher, was born in Ulster, in the township of Drumalig, near Saintfield, co. Down, on 8 August 1694. His father was John Hutcheson (d. 1729), minister of the Presbyterian church in Downpatrick (1690–97) and Armagh (1697–1729). His mother was the daughter of ...

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Newman, Francis William (1805–1897), classical scholar and moral philosopher, was born at 17 Southampton Street, Bloomsbury Square, London, on 27 June 1805. His father, John Newman (1767–1824), a banker, was of Dutch descent and his mother, Jemima (1772–1836), of Huguenot extraction, was a sister of the paper manufacturer ...

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Rashdall, Hastings (1858–1924), moral philosopher, theologian, and historian, was born at 34 St George's Road, Kensington, London, on 24 June 1858, the eldest child of the Revd John Rashdall (d. 1869?), incumbent of Eaton Chapel, Eaton Square, London, and afterwards (1864–9) of ...

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Reid, Thomas (1710–1796), natural and moral philosopher, was born on 26 April 1710 in Strachan, Kincardineshire, the son of the Revd Lewis Reid (1676–1762) and his first wife, Margaret, née Gregory (1673–1732). After attending the parish school in Kincardine O'Neil for two years, ...

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Smith, Adam (bap. 1723, d. 1790), moral philosopher and political economist, was baptized on 5 June 1723 at Kirkcaldy, a small port on the Forth. His father, also Adam Smith (1679–1723), was private secretary to the third earl of Loudoun, later becoming writer to the signet and a local ...

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Whichcote, Benjamin (1609–1683), theologian and moral philosopher, was born in Stoke, Shropshire, in March 1609, the sixth son of at least seven children of Christopher Whichcote of Whichcote Hall and his wife, Elizabeth (née Fox). In 1626 he entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge...

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Wollaston, William (1659–1724), moral philosopher, born on 26 March 1659 at Coton Clanford, Staffordshire, was the second son of William Wollaston (1634–1691) and Elizabeth Downes (1628–1707), the daughter of a local country gentleman. The Wollastons were an old Staffordshire family, but they also owned estates in ...