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Armstrong, Terence Edward (1920–1996), polar scholar, was born on 7 April 1920 at Oxted, Surrey, the youngest of three sons in the family of six children of Thomas Mandeville Emerson Armstrong (1869–1922), director of the Commercial Union Insurance Company, and his wife, Jane Crawford Young (1881–1945)...

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Aston, Michael Antony [Mick] (1946–2013), geographer and archaeologist, was born on 1 July 1946 at 112 Birch Road, Oldbury, Worcestershire, the son of Harold Henry Aston, a joiner's toolmaker, and his wife, Gladys, née Bagnall. Oldbury belonged to the industrial Black Country (on the border between ...

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Beke, Charles Tilstone (1800–1874), traveller and geographer, was born on 10 October 1800 at Stepney, London, the son of James Beke. The family had ancestral connections to Bekesbourne in Kent, where Beke lived in later life. He was educated at a private school in ...

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J. De Graaff-Hunter

revised by Yolande Hodson

Close, Sir Charles Frederick Arden- (1865–1952), surveyor and geographer, was born on 10 August 1865 at St Saviour's, Jersey, the eldest of the eleven children of Captain (later Major-General) Frederick Close (1830–1899) and his second wife, Lydia Ann Stevens. He was educated at a dame-school in ...

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G. R. Crone

revised by David Matless

Cornish, Vaughan (1862–1948), geographer, was born on 22 December 1862 at Debenham, Suffolk, the third and youngest son of Charles John Cornish (1834–1913), vicar of Debenham, and his wife, Anne Charlotte Western (1831–1887). His father's cousin was Francis Warre Warre-Cornish and his elder brother was the naturalist ...

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Cust, Maria Eleanor Vere (1862/3–1958), first woman fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, was the second daughter of Robert Needham Cust (1821–1909), orientalist, and his first wife, Maria Adelaide Hobart (d. 1864), daughter of Henry Lewis Hobart, dean of Windsor. Miss Cust...

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J. A. Steers

revised by Elizabeth Baigent

Debenham, Frank (1883–1965), geographer and polar scientist, was born at Bowral, New South Wales, on 26 December 1883, the second son of the Revd John Willmott Debenham, vicar of Bowral and schoolmaster, and his wife, Edith Cleveland. He attended the school run by his father and, after his death in 1898, by his mother, and from there went to the ...

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Dury, George Harry (1916–1996), geographer and geomorphologist, was born in Hellidon, near Daventry, Northamptonshire, on 11 September 1916, the son of Harry Dury (1879–1961), an agricultural labourer then serving as a private in the Royal West Surrey regiment, and his wife, Harriett Emma, ...

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R. N. Rudmose Brown

revised by Robin A. Butlin

Freshfield, Douglas William (1845–1934), geographer and mountain explorer, was born at Hampstead, Middlesex, on 27 April 1845, the only son of Henry Ray Freshfield (1814–1895) [see under Freshfield family], solicitor to the Bank of England, and his wife, Jane Quentin, the daughter of ...

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R. S. Rait

revised by Robin A. Butlin

George, Hereford Brooke (1838–1910), historian and geographer, born at Bath on 1 January 1838, was the eldest of the three children (two daughters and a son) of Richard Francis George, a surgeon, and his wife, Elizabeth Brooke. He entered Winchester College as a scholar in 1849, and was elected to a fellowship at ...

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Gilbert, Edmund William (1900–1973), geographer, was born on 16 October 1900 in Hemsworth, Yorkshire, the only child of the Revd Robert Henry Gilbert (1868–1922), rector of Hemsworth, and his wife, Mabel Billinton. After attending St Peter's School, York, he matriculated from Hertford College, Oxford...

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Johnston, (Alexander) Keith, the elder (1804–1871), geographer and cartographer, was the fourth son of Andrew Johnston and his wife, Isabel, daughter of Archibald Keith of Newbattle. He was born on 28 December 1804 at Kirkhill, Midlothian, and was educated at the High School...

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Johnston, (Alexander) Keith, the younger (1844–1879), geographer and map publisher, was the only son of (Alexander) Keith Johnston, the elder (1804–1871), and Margaret, daughter of Robert Gray of Edinburgh. He was born in Edinburgh on 24 November 1844, was educated at the Edinburgh Institution...

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Keltie, Sir John Scott (1840–1927), geographer, was born on 29 March 1840 in Dundee, the son of David Keltie, a builder and stonemason in Perth, and his wife, Christian, the daughter of William Scott of Crieff. The family returned to Perth shortly after ...

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Kirwan, Sir (Archibald) Laurence Patrick [Larry] (1907–1999), archaeologist and geographer, was born on 13 May 1907 in Cork, the second son of Patrick John Kirwan and his wife, Mabel, née Norton. His father came from an old Galway family, the Kirwans of Cregg...

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Lucas, Sir Charles Prestwood (1853–1931), civil servant, historian, and geographer, was born at Glanyrafon, Crickhowell, Brecknockshire, on 7 August 1853. He was the fourth and youngest son of Henry John Lucas MD, of Glanyrafon and his wife, Elisabeth, daughter of George Bevan, vicar of ...

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Mackinder, Sir Halford John (1861–1947), geographer and politician, was born at Elswitha Hall, Clask Gate Street, Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, on 15 February 1861, the eldest among the six children of Draper Mackinder (1818–1912), medical doctor, and Fanny Anne (1831–1905), daughter of Halford Wotton Hewitt...

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Markham, Sir Clements Robert (1830–1916), geographer, was born on 20 July 1830 at the vicarage, Stillingfleet, Yorkshire, the second son of the Revd David Markham, vicar of Stillingfleet and canon of Windsor, and his wife, Catherine, the daughter of Sir William Milner, fourth baronet...

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R. H. Vetch

revised by Elizabeth Baigent

Montgomerie, Thomas George (1830–1878), army officer and geographer, fourth son of Colonel W. E. Montgomerie of the Ayrshire yeomanry and of Annick Lodge, Ayrshire, was born on 23 April 1830. He was educated at Addiscombe College for the East India Company's army, and passed out first of his term, winning the Pollock medal as the most distinguished cadet. He was gazetted a second lieutenant in the ...

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Murchison, Sir Roderick Impey, baronet (1792–1871), geologist and geographer, born on 19 February 1792 at Tarradale in Easter Ross, was the elder son of Kenneth Murchison and his wife, Barbara, the daughter of Roderick Mackenzie of Fairburn. The Murchisons were a highland clan who lost their ancestral lands for participating in the rebellions of 1715 and 1745. ...