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Armstrong, Terence Edward (1920–1996), polar scholar, was born on 7 April 1920 at Oxted, Surrey, the youngest of three sons in the family of six children of Thomas Mandeville Emerson Armstrong (1869–1922), director of the Commercial Union Insurance Company, and his wife, Jane Crawford Young (1881–1945)...

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Aston, Michael Antony [Mick] (1946–2013), geographer and archaeologist, was born on 1 July 1946 at 112 Birch Road, Oldbury, Worcestershire, the son of Harold Henry Aston, a joiner's toolmaker, and his wife, Gladys, née Bagnall. Oldbury belonged to the industrial Black Country (on the border between ...

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Beke, Charles Tilstone (1800–1874), traveller and geographer, was born on 10 October 1800 at Stepney, London, the son of James Beke. The family had ancestral connections to Bekesbourne in Kent, where Beke lived in later life. He was educated at a private school in ...

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Brand, John (1744–1806), antiquary and topographer, was born on 19 August 1744 at Washington in co. Durham, where his father, Alexander Brand, was the parish clerk. Little is known of his mother, Elizabeth Wheatley, who died shortly after he was born. When his father remarried ...

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Britton, John (1771–1857), antiquary and topographer, was born on 7 July 1771 at Kington St Michael, near Chippenham, Wiltshire, the son of Henry Britton, a small farmer, maltster, baker, and village shopkeeper, and his wife, Anne Hillier. His mother died young, having reared ten children, of whom ...

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Buck, Samuel (1696–1779), topographical draughtsman, engraver, and print publisher, is usually said to have been born in Richmond, Yorkshire, though firm evidence of his birth place is lacking. Hauxwell, 4½ miles south of Richmond, has also been suggested. His father was living near ...

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J. De Graaff-Hunter

revised by Yolande Hodson

Close, Sir Charles Frederick Arden- (1865–1952), surveyor and geographer, was born on 10 August 1865 at St Saviour's, Jersey, the eldest of the eleven children of Captain (later Major-General) Frederick Close (1830–1899) and his second wife, Lydia Ann Stevens. He was educated at a dame-school in ...

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G. R. Crone

revised by David Matless

Cornish, Vaughan (1862–1948), geographer, was born on 22 December 1862 at Debenham, Suffolk, the third and youngest son of Charles John Cornish (1834–1913), vicar of Debenham, and his wife, Anne Charlotte Western (1831–1887). His father's cousin was Francis Warre Warre-Cornish and his elder brother was the naturalist ...

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Cust, Maria Eleanor Vere (1862/3–1958), first woman fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, was the second daughter of Robert Needham Cust (1821–1909), orientalist, and his first wife, Maria Adelaide Hobart (d. 1864), daughter of Henry Lewis Hobart, dean of Windsor. Miss Cust...

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J. A. Steers

revised by Elizabeth Baigent

Debenham, Frank (1883–1965), geographer and polar scientist, was born at Bowral, New South Wales, on 26 December 1883, the second son of the Revd John Willmott Debenham, vicar of Bowral and schoolmaster, and his wife, Edith Cleveland. He attended the school run by his father and, after his death in 1898, by his mother, and from there went to the ...

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Dury, George Harry (1916–1996), geographer and geomorphologist, was born in Hellidon, near Daventry, Northamptonshire, on 11 September 1916, the son of Harry Dury (1879–1961), an agricultural labourer then serving as a private in the Royal West Surrey regiment, and his wife, Harriett Emma, ...

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R. N. Rudmose Brown

revised by Robin A. Butlin

Freshfield, Douglas William (1845–1934), geographer and mountain explorer, was born at Hampstead, Middlesex, on 27 April 1845, the only son of Henry Ray Freshfield (1814–1895) [see under Freshfield family], solicitor to the Bank of England, and his wife, Jane Quentin, the daughter of ...

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R. S. Rait

revised by Robin A. Butlin

George, Hereford Brooke (1838–1910), historian and geographer, born at Bath on 1 January 1838, was the eldest of the three children (two daughters and a son) of Richard Francis George, a surgeon, and his wife, Elizabeth Brooke. He entered Winchester College as a scholar in 1849, and was elected to a fellowship at ...

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Gilbert, Edmund William (1900–1973), geographer, was born on 16 October 1900 in Hemsworth, Yorkshire, the only child of the Revd Robert Henry Gilbert (1868–1922), rector of Hemsworth, and his wife, Mabel Billinton. After attending St Peter's School, York, he matriculated from Hertford College, Oxford...

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Gillingwater, Edmund (bap. 1736, d. 1813), topographer, the fourth son of Edmund Gillingwater (c.1693–1772) and Alice Frary (c.1706–1784), was baptized on 29 December 1736 at St Margaret's, Lowestoft, where his father had been churchwarden in 1734. He was a pupil of the ...

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Gipps, Sir Richard (bap. 1659, d. 1708), topographer, second son of John Gipps (c.1620–1707) of Great Whelnetham, near Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, and his second wife, Mary (d. 1665), daughter of David Davidson, alderman of London, was baptized at Great Whelnetham...

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Gostling, William (bap. 1696, d. 1777), antiquary and topographer, was baptized in Canterbury Cathedral on 30 January 1696, the seventh and last child of John Gostling (d. 1733), Church of England clergyman and singer, but the only child of his second wife, Dorothy Wyborne...

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Hutchinson, William (1732–1814), topographer, was born in Durham on 31 December 1732, the eldest son of William Hutchinson (1705–1777), attorney of Durham, and Hannah Doubleday of Butterby by Durham. He was probably educated at Durham School and, having served his articles as a solicitor, on 30 September 1756 he married ...

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Johnson, Isaac (1754–1835), topographical artist and land surveyor, was born at Pettistree Lodge, near Wickham Market, Suffolk, and baptized in Pettistree church on 27 January 1754, the second of three artistic sons of John Johnson (c.1722–1780), land surveyor and farm bailiff, and ...

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Johnston, (Alexander) Keith, the elder (1804–1871), geographer and cartographer, was the fourth son of Andrew Johnston and his wife, Isabel, daughter of Archibald Keith of Newbattle. He was born on 28 December 1804 at Kirkhill, Midlothian, and was educated at the High School...