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E. S. P. Haynes

revised by J. F. M. Clark

Clodd, Edward (1840–1930), banker and popular anthropologist, was born at Queen Street, Margate, Kent, on 1 July 1840, the eldest child of Edward Clodd and his wife, Susan Parker. Of his six brothers and sisters four died in infancy and two did not survive childhood. His father was a ...

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Czaplicka, Marya Antonina [Marie Antoinette] (1884–1921), anthropologist, was born on 25 October 1884 in Warsaw, daughter of Felix Lubicz Czaplicki and Sophie Zawisza. Educated and trained as a geography teacher in Warsaw and Libau (now Liepaja, Latvia) between 1894 and 1905, from 1906 to 1909 she studied natural history in the ...

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Douglas [née Tew], Dame (Margaret) Mary (1921–2007), social anthropologist, was born on 25 March 1921 in San Remo, Italy, where her parents, Phyllis Margaret Twomey (1900–1933) and Gilbert Charles Tew (1884–1951), had disembarked to take a late honeymoon on their passage home from ...

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Elwin, (Harry) Verrier Holman (1902–1964), missionary and anthropologist, was born on 29 August 1902 at Pemole House, Castle Avenue, Dover, the eldest of the three children of Edmund Henry Elwin (1871–1909), bishop of Sierra Leone, and Minnie Ornsby, daughter of William Laban Holman...

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Firth, Sir Raymond William (1901–2002), anthropologist, was born on 25 March 1901 in Remuera, Auckland, New Zealand, the elder son and eldest of three children of Wesley Hugh Bourne Firth (1872/3–1977), a builder, and his wife, Marie Elizabeth Jane, née Cartmill. His sister died in infancy....

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Frazer, Sir James George (1854–1941), social anthropologist and classical scholar, was born in Blythswood Square, Glasgow, on 1 January 1854, the eldest of the four children of Daniel F. Frazer (1821–1900), leading partner in the long-established firm of chemists Frazer and Green, and his wife, ...

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Gellner, Ernest André (1925–1995), social philosopher and anthropologist, was born on 9 December 1925 in Paris, the elder of two children of Jewish parents, Rudolf Gellner (1897–1987), a lawyer, and his wife, Anna, née Fantl (1894–1954), both from Czechoslovakia. The family returned to ...

Article

W. E. Le Gros Clark

revised by Harold Ellis

Keith, Sir Arthur (1866–1955), museum curator and palaeoanthropologist, was born on 5 February 1866 at Old Machar, Aberdeenshire, the sixth of the ten children of John Keith, a farmer, and his wife, Jessica (Jessie) Macpherson. To prepare for a medical education he went to ...

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Lang, Andrew (1844–1912), anthropologist, classicist, and historian, was born on 31 March 1844 at Viewfield, in Selkirk, the eldest of the eight children of John Lang (1812–1869), sheriff clerk of Selkirkshire, and his wife, Jane Plenderleath Sellar (1821–1869), daughter of Patrick Sellar, factor to the ...

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Leach, Sir Edmund Ronald (1910–1989), social anthropologist, was born in Sidmouth, Devon, on 7 November 1910, the second son and youngest of three children of William Edmund Leach, part owner and sometime chairman of sugar plantations and a factory in northern Argentina, and his wife, ...

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Leakey, Louis Seymour Bazett (1903–1972), archaeologist and palaeoanthropologist, was born on 7 August 1903 at Kabete mission station, near Nairobi, Kenya, the third of the four children of Canon Henry (Harry) Leakey (d. 1940) and his wife, Mary (known as May) Bazett (...

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Lewis, Ioan Myrddin (1930–2014), anthropologist, was born at Redlands Hospital, Glasgow, on 30 January 1930, the only son of John Daniel Lewis (1899–1937), a Welsh journalist, and his Scottish wife, Mary Stevenson Scott, née Brown (1898–1983). His early years were spent in ...

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Mair, Lucy Philip (1901–1986), social anthropologist, was born on 28 January 1901 at Banstead, Surrey, the eldest of four children of David Beveridge Mair (1868–1942) and his wife, Jessy (later Janet) Thomson Philip (1876–1959). Her father was a former mathematics fellow at Christ's College, Cambridge...

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Malinowski, Bronisław Kasper (1884–1942), anthropologist, was born on 7 April 1884 in Cracow, Galicia (then part of the Austro-Hungarian empire, now Poland), the only child of Lucjan (Lucian) Feliks Jan Malinowski (1839–1898) and Józefa Eleonora Zenosia Malinowska, née Łącka (1848–1918). Both parents were of noble descent (...

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Marett, Robert Ranulph (1866–1943), philosopher and anthropologist, was born on 13 June 1866 at Blanc Pignon on Jersey, the eldest child and only son of the four children of Sir Robert Pipon Marett (1820–1884), attorney-general and later bailiff, and his wife and cousin, ...

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Oakley, Kenneth Page (1911–1981), anthropologist, was born on 7 April 1911 at Amersham, Buckinghamshire, the only child of Tom Page Oakley, schoolmaster and later headmaster of Dr Challoner's Grammar School, Amersham, and his wife, Dorothy Louise Thomas. He was educated at Challoner's Grammar School...

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Richards, Audrey Isabel (1899–1984), social anthropologist, was born on 8 July 1899 in London, the second of the four daughters of Sir Henry Erle Richards (1861–1922), professor of law, and his wife, Isabel (1867–1945), daughter of Spencer Perceval Butler of Lincoln's Inn. Her girlhood was spent in ...

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Risley, Sir Herbert Hope (1851–1911), administrator in India and anthropologist, was born on 4 January 1851 at Akeley, Buckinghamshire, where his father, John Holford Risley, was rector. His mother was Frances, daughter of John Hope, at one time residency surgeon of Gwalior. On 13 July 1863 he was elected a scholar of ...

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Rivers, Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt- (1827–1900), anthropologist and archaeologist, was born Augustus Henry Lane Fox on 14 April 1827 at Hope Hall, Bramham, Yorkshire, the second son of William Augustus Lane Fox (1795–1832), army officer, and Lady Caroline (d. 1873), daughter of the ...

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Rivers, William Halse Rivers (1864–1922), psychologist and anthropologist, was born on 12 March 1864 at Constitution Hill, Chatham, Kent, the eldest in the family of two sons and two daughters of Henry Frederick Rivers (1830–1911), curate, and his wife, Elizabeth Hunt. Family tradition claims that he was a descendant of ...