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Baron, Bernhard (1850–1929), tobacco manufacturer and philanthropist, was born on 5 December 1850 in the Russian town of Brest Litovsk. His parents were both Jewish and he was probably of French descent. In 1867 he emigrated to New York, where he worked in a tobacco factory, sleeping at night in the tobacco sheds; with tobacco lent to him by one of the foremen, he started to manufacture handmade cigarettes. He then moved to ...

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Leopold Bernhard Bonn (1850–1929) by Lienhard & Salzborn Royal National Institute for the Deaf

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Bonn, Leopold Bernhard (1850–1929), banker and philanthropist, was born on 3 August 1850 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, the ninth child of Baruch Bonn, a prominent Jewish banker. He was privately educated. After the annexation of Frankfurt by Prussia in 1866, Bonn applied for denaturalization and moved to ...

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See Burton, Sir Montague Maurice [formerly Meshe David Osinsky]

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Hirsch, Maurice de [formerly Moritz von Hirsch], Baron de Hirsch in the Bavarian nobility (1831–1896), businessman and philanthropist, was born on 9 December 1831 in Munich, the third child and oldest son of Joseph von Hirsch (1805–1885) and his wife, Karoline Wertheimer...

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See Kadoorie [formerly Kelly], Lawrence, Baron Kadoorie

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Samuel Lewis (1838–1901) by unknown artist reproduced by permission of Southern Housing Group Limited

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Lewis, Samuel (1838–1901), moneylender and philanthropist, was born on 14 May 1838 at 1 Lower Hurst Street, Birmingham, the elder of the two children of Frederick Lewis (b. c.1801), a dealer, and his wife, Sarah (c.1805–1872). They lived in impoverished slum conditions, and in 1841 his father was imprisoned for debt. On this, and on many other occasions, the family were rescued by benefits provided by the ...

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See Lyons, (Isidore) Jack

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Lyons, (Isidore) Jack (1916–2008), businessman, philanthropist, and convicted fraudster, was born in Leeds on 1 February 1916, the fifth of six children of Samuel Henry Lyons (1883/4–1959), businessman, and his wife, Sophie, née Niman (1885–1971). His immediate elder brother, Bernard Lyons (1913–2008...

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(Isidore) Jack Lyons (1916–2008) by unknown photographer © Stephen Lock / Telegraph Media Group Limited 1996

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Mayer, Sir Robert (1879–1985), patron of music and philanthropist, was born on 5 June 1879 at Mannheim, Germany, the third of the four sons (there was no daughter) of Emil Mayer, hop merchant and later brewer, of Mannheim, and his wife, Lucie Lehmaier...

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Mendes da Costa, Benjamin (1704–1764), philanthropist and merchant, was born in Amsterdam, the son of Luis (Abraham) Henriques Mendes da Costa (1652–1724), merchant, and his wife, Theresa (Judith) Salazar. His parents were the descendants of Iberian Jews who had converted to Christianity in the late middle ages and later found refuge from inquisitorial persecution in ...

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M. Epstein

Reviser Geoffrey Alderman

Mocatta, Frederic David (1828–1905), philanthropist, born in London on 16 January 1828, was the elder son in a family of two sons and two daughters of Abraham Mocatta (1797–1880) [see under Mocatta family], a banker. His father was an active member of the movement in ...

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Frederic David Mocatta (1828–1905) by Nadar © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Montagu, Samuel, first Baron Swaythling (1832–1911), merchant banker and philanthropist, was born Montagu Samuel in Liverpool on 21 December 1832, the second son and youngest child of Louis Samuel (1794–1859), watchmaker and silversmith of Liverpool, and his wife, Henrietta, daughter of Israel Israel...

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Samuel Montagu, first Baron Swaythling (1832–1911) by Sir Benjamin Stone, 1898 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Sackler, Mortimer David (1916–2010), psychiatrist, pharmaceuticals executive, and philanthropist, was born on 7 December 1916 at 83 Montrose Street, Brooklyn, New York City, the second of three sons of Isaac Sackler (1874–1945) and his wife, Sophie, née Greenberg (1893–1963). His parents were Jewish immigrants: his father was born in ...

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Samuel, Walter Horace, second Viscount Bearsted (1882–1948), art collector and philanthropist, was born on 13 March 1882 in London, the eldest child and only surviving son of Marcus Samuel, first Viscount Bearsted (1853–1927), and his wife, Fanny Elizabeth Benjamin (1857–1927). Educated at Eton College...

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Schwabe, Salis (1800–1853), calico printer and philanthropist, was born Salomon ben Elias Schwabe, in the village of Ovegoenne in the duchy of Oldenburg, northern Germany, and educated chiefly in Hanover. He had at least one brother. At the age of seventeen he went to ...