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Sir Richard Arkwright (1732–1792) by Joseph Wright of Derby, 1789–90 private collection; photograph © National Portrait Gallery, London


Arkwright, Sir Richard (1732–1792), inventor of cotton-spinning machinery and cotton manufacturer, was born on 23 December 1732 at Preston, Lancashire, the sixth of the seven children of Thomas Arkwright (1691–1753), a tailor, and his wife, Ellen Hodgkinson (1693–1778). The family was rooted in ...


D. J. O'Donoghue

revised by Katherine Mullin

McKowen, James (1814–1889), poet and bleachworks finisher, was born at Lambeg, near Lisburn, co. Antrim, on 11 February 1814, and received an elementary education at a local school. In his youth, he was said to walk regularly from Lambeg to Belfast to go to the theatre. After working in ...


A. F. Pollard

revised by L. A. Clarkson

Mulholland, Andrew (1791–1866), cotton and linen manufacturer, born on 2 February 1791 at Belfast, came of an old Ulster family. He married in 1817 Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas McDonnell of Belfast. His father, Thomas, was in 1819 head of Thomas Mulholland & Co....


Strutt, Jedediah (1726–1797), inventor and cotton manufacturer, was born on 26 July 1726, at South Normanton, near Alfreton, Derbyshire, the second of the three sons of William Strutt, a small farmer and maltster, and his wife, Martha, the daughter of Joseph Statham, a yeoman. At the age of fourteen ...