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Article

Blood, Thomas (1617/18–1680), adventurer and spy, was born at Sarney, co. Meath. His early life is obscure, but it was later claimed that his father (who was possibly Neptune Blood) was a blacksmith and ironworker, 'serious, honest and of no inferior credit' (...

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Thomas Blood (1617/1818–1680) by unknown artist The Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge

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J. K. Laughton

revised by Andrew C. F. David

Clerke, Charles (1743–1779), naval officer and circumnavigator, was born in Weatherfield, Essex, the son of Joseph Clerke, a farmer. He had a brother, Sir John Clerke, and a sister who married Paul Henry Maty. He entered the navy in 1755 as captain's servant and midshipman in the ...

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Fenwick, George (c. 1603–1657), colonist in America, army officer, and politician, was the son of George Fenwick of Brinkburn, Northumberland, a country squire, and his wife, Dorothy, daughter of John Forster of Newham. He matriculated at Queens' College, Cambridge, in 1619, was called to the bar at ...

Article

Gore, John (1729/30?–1790), circumnavigator and naval officer, was reputedly born in Virginia, and was presumably already an experienced seaman when, on 25 August 1755, he joined the Windsor (60 guns) at Portsmouth, and was rated midshipman. He was discharged to sick quarters in ...

Article

J. K. Laughton

revised by Elizabeth Baigent

Ives, Edward (1719–1786), naval surgeon and traveller, was born in Lymington, Hampshire, on 9 February 1719; of his early life little is known save that he had at least one sister, Gatty. He served in the navy as surgeon of the Dragon initially in the ...

Article

J. K. Laughton

revised by Andrew Lambert

Jones, George Matthew (c. 1785–1831), naval officer and traveller, was the son of John Jones, general superintendent of Landguard Fort, Felixstowe, and his wife, Mary, née Roberts; General Sir John Thomas Jones, first baronet, and Lieutenant-General Sir Harry David Jones were his brothers. On 28 April 1802 he was promoted lieutenant in the ...

Article

Macgregor, Sir Charles Metcalfe (1840–1887), army officer, explorer, and military strategist, was born at Agra on 12 September 1840, the second son of Robert Guthrie Macgregor and his wife, Alexina Watson, daughter of General Archibald Watson of the Bengal army. He had eight sisters and two brothers. ...

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Colin Mackenzie (1753–1821) by Thomas Hickey, 1816 The British Library

Article

Mackenzie, Colin (1753–1821), military engineer and surveyor, was born at Stornoway, Isle of Lewis, in the Outer Hebrides, one of four children of Murdoch Mackenzie, merchant and postmaster, and his wife, Barbara. Little is known of his early life. His friend Alexander Johnston (1775–1849)...

Article

J. K. Laughton

revised by Andrew Lambert

Mangles, James (1786–1867), naval officer and traveller, entered the navy in March 1800, on the frigate Maidstone with Captain Ross Donnelly, whom in 1801 he followed to the Narcissus. After active service on the coast of France, at the capture of the Cape of Good Hope...

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McClintock, Sir (Francis) Leopold (1819–1907), naval officer and Arctic explorer, born at Dundalk, co. Louth, on 8 July 1819, was the eldest son of Henry McClintock, formerly of the 3rd dragoon guards, customs collector of Dundalk, and his wife, Elizabeth Melesina, daughter of the ...

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Sir (Francis) Leopold McClintock (1819–1907) by Stephen Pearce, 1859 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

North, Sir John (c. 1550–1597), soldier and traveller, was the eldest son of Roger North, second Baron North (1531–1600), of Kirtling, Cambridgeshire, and Winifred (d. 1578), daughter of Richard Rich, first Baron Rich, and widow of Sir Henry Dudley. The second Lord North...

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Oudney, Walter (1790–1824), naval surgeon and traveller in Africa, was born in December 1790 to humble parents, in Edinburgh. With some medical knowledge he became a surgeon's mate on a man-of-war, was appointed assistant surgeon and then surgeon in 1810, and was stationed in the ...

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Plunkett, Thomas (b. c. 1612, d. in or before 1654), naval officer and privateer, was born in Ireland, although no evidence survives of his parents or family background. Details of his married life and early career are also sparse. His wife (possibly called ...

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Portlock, Joseph Ellison (1794–1864), surveyor, army officer, and geologist, the only son of Captain Nathaniel Portlock (d. 1817), was born at Gosport, Hampshire, on 30 September 1794. After passing through the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, he was commissioned second lieutenant, Royal Engineers...

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Joseph Ellison Portlock (1794–1864) by Maull & Polyblank, 1850s © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Rich, Robert, second earl of Warwick (1587–1658), colonial promoter and naval officer, was born in May or June 1587, probably at Leighs Priory, Essex, the eldest son of Robert Rich, third Baron Rich and later first earl of Warwick (1559?–1619), courtier and privateer, and his first wife, ...

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Robert Rich, second earl of Warwick (1587–1658) by Sir Anthony Van Dyck, c. 1634 The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Jules Bache Collection, 1949. (49.7.26) Photograph © 1998 The Metropolitan Museum of Art