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Abbot, Sir Maurice (1565–1642), merchant and politician, was born on 2 November 1565 and baptized three days later at Holy Trinity Church, Guildford, the fifth of the six sons of Maurice Abbot (1519/20–1606), a merchant, and his wife, Alice Marsh or March (1525/6–1606)...

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Arch, Joseph (1826–1919), trade unionist and politician, was born at Barford, Warwickshire, on 10 November 1826, the son of John Arch (b. c.1793), a shepherd, and Hannah Pace (c.1783–1845). Before her marriage his mother worked as a domestic servant in ...

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Joseph Arch (1826–1919) by Barraud, c. 1890 Getty Images – Barraud

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Alfred Baldwin (1841–1908) by Sir Benjamin Stone, 1897 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Baldwin, Alfred (1841–1908), industrialist and politician, was born at Stourport, Worcestershire, on 4 June 1841, the youngest of twelve children of George Pearce Baldwin (1789–1840), a small-scale iron founder and businessman, and his second wife, Sarah Chalkley Stanley (1801–1874), the eldest daughter of the ...

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Michael Thomas Bass (1799–1884) by W. W. Winter © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bass, Michael Thomas (1799–1884), brewer and politician, was born on 6 July 1799 at Burton upon Trent, the eldest son of Michael Thomas Bass (1759–1827), brewer, and his wife, Sarah, née Hoskins (1763–1837). He was educated at the grammar school in Burton and afterwards at ...

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Sir Thomas Bazley, first baronet (1797–1885) by John & Charles Watkins © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bazley, Sir Thomas, first baronet (1797–1885), cotton spinner and politician, was born on 27 May 1797 at Gilnow, near Bolton, Lancashire, the son of Thomas Bazley (1773–1845), sometime cotton manufacturer, mathematician, and journalist, and his wife, Anne, the daughter of Charles Hilton of ...

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Bond, Denis (1588–1658), merchant and politician, was born on 30 August 1588, the eldest son of John Bond (1556–1633) of Lutton, in the Isle of Purbeck, Dorset, merchant and four times mayor of Weymouth, and his wife, Margaret (d. 1631), daughter of ...

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Bradshaigh, Sir Roger, third baronet (bap. 1675, d. 1747), politician and coal owner, was baptized on 29 April 1675, the first son of Sir Roger Bradshaigh, second baronet (c.1649–1687), of Haigh Hall, Lancashire, and his wife, Mary (d. 1733), the daughter and coheir of ...

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Bradshaigh, Sir Roger, first baronet (1628–1684), politician and colliery owner, was born at Haigh Hall, Haigh near Wigan in Lancashire, on 13 January 1628, the eldest surviving son of James Bradshaigh (1598–1631) of Haigh and his wife, Ann, fourth daughter of Sir William Norris...

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John Bromley (1876–1945) by Walter Stoneman, 1930 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bromley, John (1876–1945), trade unionist, was born on 16 July 1876 at Haston Grove, Hadnall, Shropshire, the son of Charles Alfred Bromley, a dyer, and his wife, Martha Helen, née Wellings. He attended the local board school, followed by an upper grade church school until he was twelve. Straitened home circumstances then compelled him to work part-time, first as a country postboy at ...

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Browne, Isaac Hawkins (1745–1818), politician and industrialist, the only son of Isaac Hawkins Browne (1706–1760), poet and MP, and Jane Trimnell (d. c.1779), daughter and coheir of David Trimnell, archdeacon of Leicester, was born on 7 December 1745 and baptized on 16 December at ...

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Callender, William Romaine (1825–1876), cotton spinner and politician, was born on 2 June 1825 at 7 Nelson Street, Chorlton Row, Manchester, the elder son of William Romaine Callender (1794–1872), merchant and calico printer, and his first wife, Hannah, the daughter of Samuel Pope...

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Clitherow, Sir Christopher (1577/8–1641), merchant and politician, was the only son of Henry Clitherow (d. 1608), a merchant, of the parish of St Andrew Undershaft, London, and his first wife, Bridget, the daughter of Thomas Hewett. He was presumably descended from Richard...

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Sir Christopher Clitherow (1577/88–1641) by unknown artist photograph by courtesy Sotheby's Picture Library, London

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Richard Cobden (1804–1865) by Giuseppe Fagnani, 1865 [replica; original, 1860–61] © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Cobden, Richard (1804–1865), manufacturer and politician, was born on 3 June 1804 in a small farmhouse at Dunford near the village of Heyshott in Sussex, the fourth of eleven children of William Cobden (1775–1833) and his wife, Millicent, née Amber (1775–1825).