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Aggas, Edward (b. in or before 1549, d. 1625?), bookseller and publisher, was the son of Robert Aggas (d. in or before 1564), of Stoke by Nayland, Suffolk, and probably related to Radulph Agas, who was a native of the same place. He was apprenticed to the ...

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Agnew, Patrick Alexander Vans (1822–1848), East India Company servant, was born at Raipur in Chhattisgarh in central India on 21 April 1822, the second son of Patrick Vans Agnew (1783–1842), lieutenant-colonel in the Madras army and afterwards a director of the East India Company...

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Allde, John (b. in or before 1531, d. 1584), printer and bookseller, took up his freedom of the Stationers' Company in January 1555. He had been apprenticed to the bookseller Richard Kele until Kele's death in 1552, and was left 'fyve pounds...

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See Ashe, John

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Atkinson, Richard (1739–1785), merchant and director of the East India Company, was born in Westmorland on 10 March 1739 and baptized on 5 April at St James's Church, Temple Sowerby, Westmorland. He was the third son of Matthew Atkinson of Temple Sowerby and his wife, ...

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A. M. Clerke

revised by Anita McConnell

Aubert, Alexander (bap. 1730, d. 1805), merchant and astronomer, was born at Austin Friars, London, and baptized on 11 May 1730 at St Peter-le-Poer, Old Broad Street, London, the second of seven children and eldest of the four sons of Claude Aubert (1692–1774)...

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Aufrère, George René (1715–1801), merchant, was born on 7 November 1715 in Suffolk Street, near Charing Cross, London, the youngest of the five children of the Revd Israel Antoine Aufrère (1667–1758), the minister of the Savoy church, and Sarah Amsincq, the daughter of a wealthy ...

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Bader, Ernest (1890–1982), chemical manufacturer and industrial reformer, was born in Regensdorf, Switzerland, on 24 November 1890, the youngest of thirteen children of a protestant farmer, Gottlieb Bader, and his wife, Barbara Meier. He was expelled from school at the age of twelve and went to work as a menial in a ...

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Balfour, Alexander (1824–1886), merchant, was born on 2 September 1824 at Levenbank, Leven, Fife, Scotland, the eldest son of Henry Balfour, a foundry owner, and his wife, Agnes, née Bisset. The family had a business background. Alexander was educated locally at Leven parish school...

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Banner, Sir John Sutherland Harmood-, first baronet (1847–1927), accountant and steel maker, was born at Dingle Mount, Toxteth Park, Liverpool, on 8 September 1847, the second son of Harmood Walcot Banner (1814–1878), an accountant, and his wife, Margaret, née Sutherland. The family were prosperous members of the ...

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J. K. Laughton

revised by Basil Morgan

Barker, Andrew (d. 1577), merchant, of Bristol, was, in partnership with his brother John, later (1606–7) mayor of Bristol, for some years engaged in the often disputed trade with the Spanish in the Canary Islands. In 1570 one of his ships, the Falcon...

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Joshua Bates (1788–1864) by unknown artist ING Bank, NV, London Branch

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Bates, Joshua (1788–1864), merchant and banker, was born on 10 October 1788 at Weymouth, Massachusetts, United States, the youngest of three children and only son of Colonel Joshua Bates (d. 1804), a leading local businessman, and his wife, Tirzah, née Pratt. He was educated at public schools and by the ...

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Sir Eric Alfred Berthoud (1900–1989) by Elliott & Fry, 1952 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Berthoud, Sir Eric Alfred (1900–1989), oil industrialist and diplomatist, was born on 10 December 1900 in Kensington, London, the second son and third child in a family of four sons and two daughters of Alfred Edward Berthoud, of the private merchant bank Coulon, Berthoud & Co....

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Bilsland, (Alexander) Steven, Baron Bilsland (1892–1970), banker and Scottish business leader, was born on 13 September 1892, at 28 Park Circus, Glasgow, second but only surviving son of Sir William Bilsland, first baronet (1847–1921), and his wife, Agnes Ann Steven (d. 1935)...

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Bosanquet, Charles (1769–1850), merchant and writer, was born at Forest House, Leyton, Essex, on 23 July 1769, the second son of Samuel Bosanquet (1744–1806), a Huguenot merchant, and his wife, Eleanor (c.1745–1819), the daughter of Henry Lannoy Hunter of Beechill, Berkshire...

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Bradshaw, Richard (bap. 1610, d. 1685), merchant and diplomat, was baptized at Pennington, Aspull, Lancashire, on 25 August 1610; his parents are unknown. A merchant of Chester, he was elected to the common council of the city on 14 July 1637, replacing Randle Finchett...

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Bruce, Sir George (c. 1550–1625), mining industrialist and landowner, was probably born about 1550, the youngest of the three sons of Sir Edward Bruce (1505–1565) of Blairhall near Culross, in Perthshire, and Alison Reid of Aitkenhead, a sister of the bishop of Orkney...

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Buchanan, James (1696–1758), merchant, was born and baptized on 31 May 1696, the second of four sons of Archibald Buchanan of Drumhead in the parish of Cardross, Dunbartonshire, a minor Scottish laird, and his wife, Jannet Anderson. It was common for the younger sons of lairds thereabouts to be put into trade, and, like his eldest and youngest brothers, ...