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Abdul Razak bin Hussein, Tun (1922–1976), prime minister of Malaysia, was born in Pulau Keladi in the state of Pahang (a Malay state then under British ‘protection’), on 11 March 1922. Descended from a line of Bugis chieftains who had emigrated from Sulawesi...

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Acheson, Archibald, second earl of Gosford (1776–1849), governor-in-chief of British North America, was born on 1 August 1776, the eldest son of Arthur Acheson, first earl of Gosford, and his wife, Millicent, the daughter of Lieutenant-General Edward Pole, of Radbourne in Derbyshire. He entered ...

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Al-Nahas, Mustafa (1879–1965), prime minister of Egypt, was born on 15 June 1879 in Samanud, in the Gharbiyya province of Egypt's Nile delta, where his father was a timber merchant. He attended the Khedival Secondary School in Cairo between 1891 and 1896, and graduated from the ...

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Du Pre Alexander, second earl of Caledon (1777–1839) by Charles Turner, pubd 1840 (after Richard Rothwell) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Alexander, Du Pre, second earl of Caledon (1777–1839), politician and colonial administrator, was born on 14 December 1777, the only son of James Alexander (1730–1802), first earl of Caledon, of Caledon Castle, co. Tyrone, and his wife, Anne (d. 1777), daughter of ...

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Amherst, William Pitt, first Earl Amherst of Arracan (1773–1857), diplomatist and governor-general of Bengal, was born on 14 January 1773 in Bath, the first of three children of Lieutenant-General William Amherst (1732–1781), aide-de-camp to the king, governor of St John's, Newfoundland, and adjutant-general of the army, and his wife, ...

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William Pitt Amherst, first Earl Amherst of Arracan (1773–1857) by Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1821 Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio; photograph National Portrait Gallery, London

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Anderson, Sir George William (1791–1857), East India Company servant and colonial governor, was born in London, the son of Robert Anderson, a London merchant. He was educated at the East India College, Haileybury, and joined the Bombay establishment of the East India Company...

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Sir John Anderson (1858–1918) by Walter Stoneman, 1900–09 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Anderson, Sir John (1858–1918), civil servant and colonial governor, was born on 23 January 1858 at the Free School, Gartly, Aberdeenshire, the only son among the five children of John Anderson, schoolmaster and later superintendent of the Gordon Mission, Aberdeen, and his wife, ...

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Sir Edmund Andros (1637–1714) by unknown artist Bequest of Henry Lee Shattuck in memory of Morris Gray, © 2004 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

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Andros, Sir Edmund (1637–1714), colonial governor, was born in London on 6 December 1637, the third of the eight children of Amias Andros (1610–1674), master of ceremonies to Charles I and seigneur of Sausmarez in Guernsey, and his wife, Elizabeth (1610–1686), daughter of ...

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Appiah, Joseph Emmanuel [Joe] (1918–1990), politician in Ghana, was born in Kumasi, Gold Coast, on 16 November 1918, the son of James W. K. Appiah, schoolmaster, and his wife, Adoma. He came from an aristocratic family with close maternal and paternal links to the ruling house of Asante. His father had been personal secretary to the Asantehene, ...

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Arbuthnot, Marriot (1711–1794), naval officer and colonial governor, was born in Weymouth, the son of John Arbuthnott. He entered the navy about 1727, and passed his lieutenant's examination in August 1739 when he was described as upwards of twenty-seven (TNA: PRO, ADM 107/3, p. 334...

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Archdale, John (1642–1717), colonial governor, was born about 5 May 1642, the son of Mary Nevill and Thomas Archdale, a landowner in the parish of High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire; Thomas Archdale was the son of London merchant Richard Archdale, who had purchased the manors of ...

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Archer, Sir Geoffrey Francis (1882–1964), colonial governor, was born on 4 July 1882 at 10 Somers Place, Paddington, London, the second son of Francis Bradley Archer, a banker, and his wife, Mary Elizabeth Jackson. With the assistance of his maternal uncle, Frederick Jackson...

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Argall, Sir Samuel (bap. 1580, d. 1626), colonial governor and merchant, was baptized on 4 December 1580 at Holy Trinity, East Peckham, Kent, the fourth son of Richard Argall (c.1533–1588), politician, and his third wife, Mary Scott (d. 1598). Under his father's will ...

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Armitage, Sir Robert Perceval (1906–1990), colonial governor, was born on 21 December 1906 at Nungumbaukum, Madras, India, the first of two children of Frank Armitage (1872–1955) of the Indian police and his wife, Muriel (1879–1963), the daughter of the Revd Frederic Louis Byrde...

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Asquith, Julian Edward George, second earl of Oxford and Asquith (1916–2011), colonial governor, was born on 22 April 1916 at 49 Bedford Square, London, the son of Raymond Asquith (1878–1916), classical scholar, barrister, and army officer, and his wife, Katharine Frances (1885–1976), daughter of ...

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Aung San (1915–1947) by unknown photographer © Popperfoto