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Ashworth, Edmund (1800–1881), cotton manufacturer and free-trade activist, was born on 17 November 1800 at Birtenshaw, Turton, near Bolton, the fifth of the eleven children of John Ashworth (1772–1855), farmer, land agent, and cotton spinner, and his wife, Isabel Thomasson (1772–1852). Edmund was a younger brother of ...

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Dobbs, Arthur (1689–1765), colonial governor and writer on trade, was born at Girvan in Ayrshire on 2 April 1689, the son of Richard Dobbs, army officer and future high sheriff of Antrim, and his first wife, Mary (d. before 1711), daughter of ...

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Arthur Dobbs (1689–1765) by James Macardell (after William Hoare) Ashmolean Museum, Oxford

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Hippisley, John (bap. 1729, d. 1766), writer on trade and administrator in west Africa, was baptized on 21 June 1729 at St Andrew's, Holborn, London, the son of John Hippisley (1696–1748), an actor and theatre manager, and his partner, Mary Charley. Little is known of his early life and education. He played Tom Thumb in ...

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Hume, James Deacon (1774–1842), civil servant and free-trader, was born on 28 April 1774 at Newington, Surrey, the son of James Hume, a customs official, and his wife, Elizabeth Capps. He had four sisters. Hume was educated at Westminster School and became a customs clerk in 1791. He rose steadily to reach the grade of comptroller in 1821, with a salary of ...

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John MacGregor (1797–1857) by unknown engraver, pubd 1848 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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MacGregor, John (1797–1857), civil servant and free-trader, was born at Drynie, near Stornoway, the eldest son of David MacGregor and Janet Ross. He had at least two brothers. In 1803 his parents took him to Canada, where they lived in Nova Scotia before moving to ...

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McIntosh, Andrew Robert, Baron McIntosh of Haringey (1933–2010), market researcher and politician, was born on 30 April 1933 in the Royal Free Hospital, Hampstead, London, the elder of two children of Albert William McIntosh (1904–1994), then a clerk for a business consultant, and his wife, ...

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Smith, John Benjamin (1794–1879), promoter of free trade, was born in Manchester, the eldest son of Benjamin Smith, a cotton merchant there. A brother, Thomas Smith (d. 1864), settled at Colebrooke Park, Kent. Smith married Jemina, daughter of William Durning of Liverpool...