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Brittain, Sir Henry Ernest [Harry] (1873–1974), journalist and politician, was born on 24 December 1873 at Storth Oaks, Ranmoor, near Sheffield, Yorkshire, the oldest surviving child in the family of two sons and three daughters (one daughter died in infancy) of William Henry Brittain (1835–1922)...

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(Archibald) Fenner Brockway, Baron Brockway (1888–1988) by Bassano, 1930 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Brockway, (Archibald) Fenner, Baron Brockway (1888–1988), politician and campaigner, was born on 1 November 1888 in Calcutta, the only son and eldest of three children of the Revd William George Brockway, London Missionary Society missionary, and his wife, Frances Elizabeth, daughter of William Abbey...

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Des Barres, Joseph Frederick Wallet (1721–1824), hydrographer and colonial official, was born in November 1721, either in Basel, Switzerland, or in Paris, the eldest child of Joseph-Léonard Vallet des Barres, a Huguenot, and his wife, Anne-Catherine, née Cuvier. He was baptized Joseph-Frédéric Vallet...

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Fry [formerly Freund], Richard Henry (1900–2002), financial and political journalist, was born Richard Freund on 23 September 1900 in Berlin, the son of Rudolf Freund, a brewer and general merchant, and his wife, Betty. Both parents were from Bohemia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian empire. He had one brother. Although his father ran a brewery in ...

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Thompson Cooper

revised by Stephen M. Lee

Hodgson, William (1763/4?–1851), politician and author, was descended from an 'ancient border family' (GM), and in early life studied medicine in the Netherlands, where he developed an interest in botany. On his return to England he attended with success, through a severe illness, a member of ...

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Sir Moses Haim Montefiore (1784–1885) by Elliott & Fry © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Montefiore, Sir Moses Haim (1784–1885), financier and Jewish community leader, the eldest son of Joseph Elias Montefiore, a London businessman, and Rachel, the daughter of Abraham Lumbroso de Mattos Mocatta, was born in Leghorn, Italy (during a visit there by his parents), on 24 October 1784. On his father's side ...

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Raczyński, Count Edward Bernard Andrzej Maria (1891–1993), Polish diplomatist and president-in-exile, was born on 19 December 1891 at Zakopane, Galicia, Austria–Hungary, the younger son of Edward Aleksander Raczyński, third Count Raczyński-Raczyński (1847–1926), landowner and patron of the arts, and his second wife, Countess Róẓa Krasińska, ...

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Schuster, Sir George Ernest (1881–1982), government adviser, was born on 25 April 1881 in Hampstead, London, the elder son (there were no daughters) of Ernest Joseph Schuster (1850–1924), barrister, and his wife, Hilda, daughter of Sir Hermann Weber MD. His father came from a Jewish family of bankers who had left ...

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Emanuel Shinwell, Baron Shinwell (1884–1986) by Walter Bird, 1958 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Shinwell, Emanuel, Baron Shinwell (1884–1986), politician, was born on 18 October 1884 in Spitalfields, London, the eldest in a family of thirteen children of Samuel Shinwell, a clothing manufacturer of Polish-Jewish origin, and his Dutch wife, Rose Konigswinter. The family moved to Glasgow...

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Sylvester, Albert James (1889–1989), political and private secretary, was born on 24 November 1889 in Harlaston, Staffordshire, the eldest of three children and only son of Albert Sylvester, a tenant farmer reduced to the role of farmworker by the agricultural depression, and his wife, ...