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Abraham, Roy Clive (1890–1963), scholar of African languages and colonial administrator, was born on 16 December 1890 in Melbourne, Australia, the second son of Isaac Abraham (1849-1918) and his wife Amy nee Soloman (b. 1861). From a Jewish background, he studied at ...

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Abramsky, Yehezkel (1886–1976), rabbinic scholar and Orthodox Jewish leader, was born on or about 7 February 1886 in Dashkovtsy, near Most and Grodno, Lithuania, the third child and eldest son of Mordecai Zalman Abramsky, a local timber merchant, and his wife, Freydel Goldin...

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Sir Arthur Herbert Dyke Acland, thirteenth baronet (1847–1926) by W. & D. Downey, pubd 1894 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Acland, Sir Arthur Herbert Dyke, thirteenth baronet (1847–1926), politician and educational reformer, was born at Holnicote, near Porlock, Somerset, on 13 October 1847, the third son of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, eleventh baronet (1809–1898), and his first wife, Mary (d. 1851), daughter of ...

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Acland, Sir John (c. 1552–1620), politician and benefactor, was the younger son of John Acland (d. 1553) of Acland Barton in the parish of Landkey, north Devon, and Margaret, daughter and coheir of Hugh Radcliff of Stepney and the Middle Temple. He was born into an established gentry family which already bore heraldic arms and owned lands in five other ...

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Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, eleventh baronet (1809–1898) by Hills & Saunders © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Acland, Sir Thomas Dyke, eleventh baronet (1809–1898), politician and educational reformer, born at Killerton, Devon, on 25 May 1809, was the eldest son of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland (1787–1871), politician and philanthropist, and his wife, Lydia Elizabeth (d. 1856), only daughter of ...

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Acworth, George (1534–1581x6), administrator and scholar, was born in London in 1534, the son of Thomas Acworth, a merchant taylor of London, and his wife, Anne. Thomas came from Bedfordshire, where his father, also named George, had been elected knight of the shire for that county in 1529. During his youth ...

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Adams, Maurice (1850–1935), socialist and moral philosopher, was the youngest child of John Botroele Adams, a general agent who specialized in building and insurance work. His elder sister Mary had been born nine years earlier in Birmingham. After leaving school, Adams qualified as a chartered insurance broker and joined his father's firm, which became ...

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Adams, William George Stewart (1874–1966), political scientist and college head, was born on 8 November 1874 at Hamilton, Lanarkshire, the second son and youngest of the four children of John Adams, headmaster of St John's Grammar School, Hamilton, with Aberdonian farming ancestors, and his wife, ...

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Æthelweard [Ethelwerd] (d. 998?), chronicler and magnate, was ealdorman of south-western England. He styled himself 'Patricius Consul Fabius Quaestor', a latinization of 'Æthel-/ealdorman/Fabius/-weard'. He was the father of Æthelmær, grandfather of one Æthelweard and grandfather-in-law of another: all also ealdormen, and two of the same south-western ealdormanry as ...

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Ainslie, Sir Robert, first baronet (1729/30–1812), diplomatist and numismatist, was the third son of George Ainslie (d. 1773), merchant, and his wife, Jean, daughter of Sir Philip Anstruther of Anstrutherfield, Fife. He grew up with his two brothers and five sisters in ...

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Alexander, Sir Kenneth John Wilson [Ken] (1922–2001), economist, university administrator, and public servant, was born on 14 March 1922 at 12 Kilmaurs Terrace, Edinburgh, the only son of William Wilson Alexander (1888–1930), lawyer, and his wife, Mary Logan Grahame, née Wilson (1888–1975), tailoress. He won a scholarship to ...

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W. P. Courtney

revised by H. C. G. Matthew

Allen, John (1771–1843), political and historical writer, was born at Redford, in the parish of Colinton, near Edinburgh, on 3 February 1771. His father, James Allen, a writer to the signet and the owner of the small estate of Redford, became bankrupt, but after his death the son, through the aid of his mother's family and the liberality of her second husband, was educated privately. He was apprenticed to an ...

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Anslay, Brian (d. 1536), administrator and translator, about whose parentage and origins little is known, participated, as yeoman of the wine cellar, in Henry VII's funeral procession and in Henry VIII's coronation ceremonies in 1509. In 1521 his translation of Christine de Pisan's...

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Anson, Sir William Reynell, third baronet (1843–1914), politician and college head, was born at Walberton, Sussex, on 14 November 1843, the eldest son of Sir John William Hamilton Anson, second baronet (1816–1873), and his wife, Elizabeth Catherine (d. 1903), daughter of Major-General Sir Denis Pack...

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Sir William Reynell Anson, third baronet (1843–1914) by Sir Hubert von Herkomer, 1895 All Souls College, Oxford

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Antonius, George Habib (1891–1942), colonial official, historian, and political activist, was born on 19 October 1891 in Dair al-Qamar, a small town in the Lebanese mountains, the third of five sons of Habib Antonius (d. 1931), a merchant, and his wife, Émilie Hobeika (...

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Arnold, Matthew (1822–1888), poet, writer, and inspector of schools, was born at Laleham-on-Thames, Middlesex, on 24 December 1822, the eldest son and second of the nine surviving children of the Revd Thomas Arnold (1795–1842) and Mary Penrose Arnold (1791–1873). Thomas Arnold had been a fellow of ...

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Matthew Arnold (1822–1888) by George Frederic Watts, 1880 © National Portrait Gallery, London