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Charles I (1600–1649), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was born in Dunfermline Castle, Scotland, on 19 November 1600 and baptized at the palace of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh, on 23 December. He was the third child of James VI of Scotland (subsequently James I...

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Charles II (1630–1685), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was born on 29 May 1630 at St James's Palace, London, where he was baptized on 27 June, the second (but first surviving) son of Charles I (1600–1649) and Henrietta Maria (1609–1669), the daughter of ...

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Charles II (1630–1685) by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1685 Board of Trustees of the National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside (Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool)

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Charles I (1600–1649) by Sir Anthony Van Dyck, 1635 The Royal Collection © 2004 HM Queen Elizabeth II

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FitzRoy [formerly Palmer], Henry, first duke of Grafton (1663–1690), naval officer, the second illegitimate son of Charles II (1630–1685) and Barbara Palmer, née Villiers, countess of Castlemaine and later duchess of Cleveland (bap. 1640, d. 1709), was born at his mother's house in ...

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Henry, Prince, duke of Gloucester (1640–1660), was born on 8 July 1640 at Oatlands, Surrey, and baptized there on 22 July, the fourth, but third surviving, son of Charles I, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1600–1649), and Queen Henrietta Maria (1609–1669). He was declared ...

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Henry Frederick, prince of Wales (1594–1612), was born early on 19 February 1594 at Stirling Castle. He was the eldest child of King James VI of Scotland (1566–1625) and Anne (1574–1619), second daughter of Frederick II, king of Denmark, and Sophia, and older sister of ...

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Henry Frederick, prince of Wales (1594–1612) by Isaac Oliver, c. 1610–12 The Royal Collection © 2004 HM Queen Elizabeth II

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James II and VII (1633–1701), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was born in St James's Palace, London, on 14 October 1633, the third surviving child and third (but second surviving) son of Charles I (1600–1649) and his French queen, Henrietta Maria (1609–1669)...

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James II and VII (1633–1701) by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1684 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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James VI and I (1566–1625) by Daniel Mytens, 1621 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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James VI and I (1566–1625), king of Scotland, England, and Ireland, was born at Edinburgh Castle on 19 June 1566, the only son of Mary, queen of Scots (1542–1587), and her second husband, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley (1545/6–1567).

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Scott [formerly Crofts], James, duke of Monmouth and first duke of Buccleuch (1649–1685), politician, was born on 9 April 1649 at Rotterdam, the illegitimate son of Charles II (1630–1685) and Lucy Walter (1630?–1658), daughter of William Walter (or Walters) of Roch Castle...

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James Scott, duke of Monmouth and first duke of Buccleuch (1649–1685) by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1678 private collection; photograph National Galleries of Scotland

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Stewart, Henry, duke of Albany [known as Lord Darnley] (1545/6–1567), second consort of Mary, queen of Scots, was born at Temple Newsam, Yorkshire, the second but elder surviving son of Matthew Stewart, thirteenth or fourth earl of Lennox (1516–1571), and his wife, ...

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Henry Stewart, duke of Albany [Lord Darnley] (1545/66–1567) by Hans Eworth, 1563 [right, with his brother Charles Stewart, later earl of Lennox] The Royal Collection © 2004 HM Queen Elizabeth II

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William, Prince, duke of Gloucester (1689–1700), was born on 24 July 1689 at Hampton Court, Middlesex, the third child and eldest son of Anne (1665–1714), later queen of Great Britain and Ireland, and her husband, George, prince of Denmark and duke of Cumberland...

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William III and II (1650–1702), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and prince of Orange, was born in the Binnenhof Palace in The Hague on 14 November 1650 ns. He was the posthumous and only child of William II, prince of Orange (1626–1650)...

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William III and II (1650–1702) by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1690 The Royal Collection © 2004 HM Queen Elizabeth II